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Calvin Chong, R.A. Cline, and D.L. Rinker

Appreciation is extended to Willowbrook Nurseries, Ont., Canada, for supplying unrooted cuttings, and to Greenwood Mushroom Farms and Leaver Mushroom Co. for supplying the spent composts. Bob Hamersma and Debbie Norton provided technical

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Daniel C. Brainard and D. Corey Noyes

amendments including compost and cover crops and by minimizing SOM losses through reduced tillage practices ( Magdoff and van Es, 2000 ). Although organic matter inputs are common in vegetable production systems, adoption of reduced tillage practices has been

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Calvin Chong, R.A. Cline, D.L. Rinker, and O.B. Allen

; Downham Nurseries, Strathroy, Ontario; Niagara-Holland Nurseries, Niagara-on-The-Lake, Ontario; and Willowbrook Nurseries, Fenwick, Ontario. Composted bark was supplied by Mori Nurseries, Niagara-On-The-Lake. The technical assistance of Bob Hamersma and

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Manuel Díaz-Pérez and Francisco Camacho-Ferre

, and the ecosystem degradation ( Raviv, 1998 ; Sterrett, 2001 ). Since the late 1970s, alternatives to peat have been sought worldwide ( Raviv et al., 1986 ). Many authors have indicated the viability of vegetable waste composts (VW), solid urban

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Sandra A. Balch and Dick L. Auld

As the public becomes more aware of environmental concerns, there has been a renewed interest in composting. Municipalities are promoting composting as a way to save diminishing landfill space. Although there are many successful composting programs, many would-be composters are thwarted by a lack of expertise, information, and follow-up support. Brochures, videos, and slide presentations present visual information, but hands-on instruction and active involvement in on-going programs has increased the likelihood of success. Integrating composting into established programs, such as community gardens, institutional programs, education curriculum, and demonstration sites, has proven an effective method of conveying composting information to the public.

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Rita L. Hummel, Craig Cogger, Andy Bary, and Robert Riley

Composted organic wastes have the potential to substitute for peat and bark as components of the growth substrates in containerized plant production systems ( Carlile, 2008 ; Clark and Cavigelli, 2005 ; Estévez-Schwarz et al., 2009 ; Fitzpatrick

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Richard M. Pfeil and Ralph O. Mumma

John Winnett for their assistance with this research. We also thank the Dept. of Plant Pathology for the use of the MTDF and for the spawned compost. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal

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Michael W. Olszewski, Marion H. Holmes, and Courtney A. Young

matter also can act as an adhesive between soil particles, resulting in improved moisture-holding capabilities ( Alexander, 1996 ). Compost is the preferred source of organic matter incorporated into green roof substrates primarily due to nutrient

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Mohammed El-Sayed El-Mahrouk, Yaser Hassan Dewir, and Salah El-Hendawy

Grape juice industries produce large amounts of waste, which can negatively affect the environment ( Kumar and Manimegalai, 2004 ). Composting of ‘Red Roomy’ grape waste for use as a partial peat substitute has been proposed; it could also reduce

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T.K. Hartz

A recently enacted state law requiring California cities to reduce their solid waste flow to landfills has greatly increased the composting of yard and landscape wastes. Currently, much of this material is being composted for less than 16 weeks, some for as little as 4 weeks, before agricultural use. A study was conducted to document the effects of composting method and duration on the physiochemical and biological characteristics of green waste compost. At each of four commercial composting facilities, two windrows of municipal green waste were sampled at 3-week intervals over a 15-week composting period. Each sample was analyzed for pH, NH4-N, NO3-N, and total N and C. Phytotoxicity was measured by a tomato seed bioassay. N mineralization/immobilization behavior was evaluated in a 2-week aerobic incubation of a 10% compost/90% soil blend at 30°C. The growth of vinca plugs (Vinca minor cv. `Pink Cooler') in a 50% compost/50% perlite mix was also evaluated. At all sites, the initial green waste was similar, with 1.1–1.5% N and C/N ratio of 20–28. Rapid mineralization of carbon in the first 6- to 9-weeks reduced C/N ratios to 14–18, with little change thereafter. Phytotoxicity decreased through 9 to 12 weeks, then stabilized. Net N immobilization was observed throughout the compost period, but decreased with increased composting time. Vinca growth increased with increasing compost age, up to 9 to 12 weeks. In summary, at least 12 weeks of composting was required to produce material of sufficient quality for typical agricultural uses.