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Stephen S. Miller and Thomas Tworkoski

increase fruit size at harvest. Hand thinning is expensive and, with recent labor shortages, is more problematic for growers to complete in a timely manner. Chemical thinners have long been available and used in apple production ( Byers, 2003 ). Thinning at

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Antonios E. Tsagkarakis, Michael E. Rogers, and Timothy M. Spann

wall development in meristems acting as a chemical pinching agent and is also known to alter endogenous hormone levels, including abscisic acid- and GA-like substances and ethylene ( Davis and Curry, 1991 ). Relatively little data are available on the

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Lucia E. Villavicencio, James A. Bethke, and Lea Corkidi

Commercial nursery crop production in the United States involves the use of chemical plant growth regulators (PGRs) to control plant growth and height ( Hayashi et al., 2001 ; Latimer and Scoggins, 2012 ). Compact plants are easier to transplant

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Yue Wen, Shu-chai Su, Ting-ting Jia, and Xiang-nan Wang

Institute of Chemical Industry, Shanghai, China) was injected into the bag using a syringe. We shook each labeled leaf every 30 min to evenly distribute the 13 CO 2 in the bag. After maintaining photosynthesis for 4 h, KOH solution was used to absorb the

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Mara Grossman, John Freeborn, Holly Scoggins, and Joyce Latimer

( Garner et al., 1997 ). Chemical PGRs are often used during plug and rooted cutting (liner) production but must be used with care for efficacy and to prevent unwanted effects such as phytotoxicity or delayed flowering. These PGR applications are typically

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Kristin L. Getter

factors (light, nutrition, etc.) are not limiting ( Dole and Wilkins, 2005 ; Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, 2014). Research on poinsettia ( Euphorbia pulcherrima ) sprayed with uniconazole (a PGR in the same group of chemicals as PBZ

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Uttara C. Samarakoon and James E. Faust

applications and continued as required for each analysis described in the sections to follow. Texture analysis for mechanical properties . A 3-cm-long leaf that developed on each axillary shoot following pinching was tagged on the same day across all stock

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Christopher J. Currey and John E. Erwin

on flowering plants was low and did not add to the “fullness” of the crop. As a result, increasing branching chemically with plant growth regulators such as ethephon [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid] or benzyladenine [ N -(phenylmethyl)-1 H -purin-6

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Shengrui Yao and Carl J. Rosen

’ that had plants of 7 ft high, primocanes were pinched back several inches to stimulate lateral branches and control height. For the field planting, there was no primocane thinning or pinching. Plant height for all plots (at least three primocanes from

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Takafumi Kinoshita and Masaharu Masuda

-strength commercial nutrient solution with an EC of 1.4 dS·m −1 (Otsuka Chemical Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan) and containing nitrogen (N) (NO 3 -N:NH 4 -N = 9:1), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) at concentrations of 130, 26, 168, 82, and 18