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Celina Gómez, Christopher J. Currey, Ryan W. Dickson, Hye-Ji Kim, Ricardo Hernández, Nadia C. Sabeh, Rosa E. Raudales, Robin G. Brumfield, Angela Laury-Shaw, Adam K. Wilke, Roberto G. Lopez, and Stephanie E. Burnett

; Short et al., 2018 ). Production systems. Production systems for CEA typically consist of soilless culture, with or without the use of an organic or inorganic substrate and with active application of water and fertilizer, typically provided with a dilute

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Nagehan D. Köycü, John E. Stenger, and Harlene M. Hatterman-Valenti

production systems because it works relatively well under low inoculum conditions early in the season and will help to reduce applications of more effective but more resistance-prone material later in the season during peak disease infection ( Savocchia et al

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Marc-André Sparke, Achim Wegscheider, Patrick Winterhagen, Ute Ruttensperger, Martin Hegele, and Jens Norbert Wünsche

as PGR applications ( Adler and Wilcox, 1987 ; Biddington and Dearman, 1987 ; Latimer, 1991 ). Beyl and Mitchell (1977) invented an automated system that shakes and touches plants simultaneously to control plant growth, but their device was

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Sudeep S. Sidhu, Qingguo Huang, Robert N. Carrow, and Paul L. Raymer

residual effects of laccase application. Laccase treatments were sprayed using a flat fan nozzle and portable CO 2 sprayer system as 410 mL of solution in a 2-L bottle. Laccase enzymes from Trametes versicolor , a white-rot fungus, were purchased from

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Maren J. Mochizuki, Oleg Daugovish, Miguel H. Ahumada, Shawn Ashkan, and Carol J. Lovatt

application must be demonstrated for growers to consider the practice and become advocates of industrial CO 2 recycling. Commercial raspberry production, in particular, may be a model system for CO 2 sequestration. First, raspberry plants have a large

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P.R. Johnstone, T.K. Hartz, and D.M. May

range of California vegetable crops, including muskmelon and honeydew. However, the ability to reduce Ca-mediated disorders through Ca application under representative field conditions has generally been reported to be poor. Misaghi and Matyac (1981

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Erik Lichtenberg, John Majsztrik, and Monica Saavoss

Improvements in sensor technology coupled with advances in knowledge about plant physiology have made it feasible to use real-time substrate volumetric water content sensors to accurately determine irrigation timing and application rates in soilless

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Mark Gaskell and Tim Hartz

. Fertilizer cost is only one aspect of profitability. Compatibility with other elements of the production system is critical, and it plays an important role in fertilizer choice. Reducing labor cost for fertilizer application is one factor favoring the use of

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Robert C. Morrow

., 1995 ). Because of the high cost of LED lighting systems, application of LEDs to crop growth has been restricted primarily to research in controlled environments like growth chambers and greenhouses. Much of the early work looking at plant production

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Martin M. Maboko and Christian P. Du Plooy

The management of total nutrient concentration (NC) applied through fertigation is an important aspect for successful vegetable production in hydroponic systems to maximize yield and quality of produce. However, too high levels of NC increase input