Conversion of wastewater to reclaimed water for crop irrigation conserves water and is an effective way to handle a growing urban problem: the disposal of wastewater. Water Conserv II is a large reclaimed water project developed by Orlando and Orange County, Fla., that presently irrigates ≈1900 ha of citrus. The project includes a research component to evaluate the response of citrus to irrigation using reclaimed water. Citrus trees in an experimental planting responded well to very high application rates of reclaimed water. Irrigation treatments included annual applications of 400 mm of well water, and 400, 1250, and 2500 mm of reclaimed water. The 2500-mm rate is excessive, and since disposal was of interest, this rate was used to determine if citrus could tolerate such high rates of irrigation. The effects of these treatments were compared on `Hamlin' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] and `Orlando' tangelo (C. paradisi Macf. × C. reticulata Blanco) combined with four rootstocks: Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Cleopatra mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), sour orange (C. aurantium L.), and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi × P. trifoliata). Growth and fruit production were greatest at the highest irrigation rate. Concentration of soluble solids in the juice was usually lowered by the highest irrigation rate, but total soluble solids per hectare were 15.5% higher compared to the 400-mm rate, due to the greater fruit production. While fruit soluble solids were usually lowered by higher irrigation, the reduction in fruit soluble solids observed on three of the rootstocks did not occur in trees on Carrizo citrange. Fruit peel color score was lower but juice color score was higher at the highest irrigation rate. Crop efficiency (fruit production per unit of canopy volume) was usually lower at the 2500-mm rate and declined as trees grew older. Weed cover increased with increasing irrigation rate, but was controllable. Irrigation with high rates of reclaimed water provided a satisfactory disposal method for treated effluent, benefited growth and production of citrus, and eliminated the need for other sources of irrigation water. Reclaimed water, once believed to be a disposal problem in Florida, is now considered to be one way to meet irrigation demands.
Previous work suggests that `Beauregard' sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] has a much lower N requirement than other common cultivars. Over the past 10 years, `Beauregard' has become the premier sweetpotato cultivar grown in Virginia; however, N fertilizer recommendations have not been reassessed to consider the potentially lower N requirement of `Beauregard'. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of N rate and application timing on root yield, quality, and N use efficiency for `Beauregard' sweetpotato production in Virginia. A field study was conducted each year from 2000 to 2002 at the Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Painter, Va. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied at rates of 28, 56, and 84 kg·ha-1 either before transplanting, 2 to 3 weeks after transplanting (WAT), or 4 to 5 WAT. A check treatment that received no N fertilizer was also included. Optimum N rates varied annually; under normal precipitation, root yield was greatest at the 28-kg·ha-1 rate, while 56 kg·ha-1 was required for maximum yield in wet conditions. Of note is that this range of rates is considerably lower than the current N recommendation for Virginia sweetpotato production (56 to 84 kg·ha-1). Delaying N application until 2 to 3 WAT further increased marketable root yield compared with applying N before transplanting or 4 to 5 WAT. Crude protein and N uptake increased with increasing N rate up to 84 kg·ha-1; however, N use efficiency was highest (67%) when 28 kg·ha-1 was applied 2 to 3 WAT.
`Dark Red Annette Hegg' poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch) were grown in a 1 peat : 1 perlite : 1 vermiculite medium using a pinched production schedule with varying N and S fertilizer application rates. Fifty-six treatments consisting of eight N levels (100 to 275 mg·L−1 in 25-mg·L−1 increments) and seven S levels (0 to 75 mg·L−1 in 12.5-mg·L−1 increments) were supplied. Other required nutrients were supplied at commercial recommendations for all treatments. Foliage of each plant was evaluated quantitatively by chromometer readings every 3 weeks. Marketability was determined by sensory evaluations from commercial producers, retailers, and consumers. Results indicated distinct color differences (hue, chroma, value) between S levels of 0 and 12.5 mg·L−1 and a slight difference between S at 12.5 and 25 mg·L−1. The foliage of plants receiving 0 S was lighter, more vivid, and more yellow-green in color. As N levels increased, there was a linear response; foliage became more green, darker, and more dull. Commerical and consumer evaluators rated plants that received S at 0 or 12.5 mg·L−1 at all N levels and plants receiving N at 100 mg L−1 as unmarketable. This research indicates that `Annette Hegg' poinsettia requires S at a minimum of 25 mg·L−1 and N at a minimum of 125 mg·L−1 for commercial acceptance, and commercial N application rates may be greatly reduced when adequate S is supplied.
MnSO4 and Rayplex-Mn were found to be effective sources of Mn for tomato seedlings grown on a Mn deficient high organic sandy soil. Tomato seedlings absorbed Mn from MnSO4 or Rayplex-Mn applied in the starter band on or under the seed with equal effectiveness. The amount absorbed was directly related to the Mn concentration in the band. MnSO4 at 100 mg Mn/ft of row increased the Mn content of the tissue from 17 ppm to more than 100 ppm.
MnEDTA at a rate to supply 10 to 25 mg Mn/ft of row in bands on or under the seed did not affect seedling growth and Mn uptake was less than from the same rate of MnSO4. Rates of 50 and 100 mg Mn/ft of row from MnEDTA in the starter band on or under the seed caused death or severe stunting of tomato seedlings because of toxicity. Band applications of Mn sources increased Mn composition of the tomato tissue relatively much more than did the broadcast application.
In the last 3 years, ≤50% of the North Carolina sweetpotato crop has been produced with the variety Hernandez. A brown to black discoloration on the epidermis of the `Hernandez' sweetpotato may develop when maintained in storage for several months. The symptoms resemble blister—blister is caused by a boron deficiency. Preliminary studies in 1994 indicated that boron reduced the discoloration on `Hernandez' but did not eliminate the problem. To help confirm these findings and further define the role of boron in defining skin discoloration, boron was applied in 1995 at several rates (0 to 5.6 kg·ha–1) and stages of plant development using two application methods (foliar or soil). Yields and plant analysis data were obtained. Marketable yields ranged from 18.4 to 29.3 mt/ha. Leaf boron concentration ranged from 50 to 100 mg·kg–1 throughout the production season when 1.1 kg·ha–1 boron was soil applied shortly after planting. Excessive levels of boron (200+ mg·kg–1) were measured in plant tissue when application levels exceeded 2.2 kg·ha–1 regardless of timing. Soil application appeared to be an adequate method for boron application. Roots were examined for symptoms of discoloration after 5 months. Results indicated no affect of boron on incidence or severity of the symptoms.
Trickle irrigation studies often require different water application rates. The design and construction of trickle systems for randomized studies can be difficult and expensive if they involve separate timers, solenoids, valves, and/or irrigation lines for each treatment. One possible solution to this problem is to design the system so that only the emitters are used to regulate the flow of water within each test group. Such a system can be controlled by a single timer with only one lateral line needed for each row.
Ten crops were evaluated for potential use as field bioassay species for cinmethylin and chlorimuron application rates in two soil types. Cinmethylin injured sweet corn (Zea mays L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] at concentrations as low as 0.28 kg·ha-1 on either soil type, while broadleaf crops were tolerant. Chlorimuron injured sweet corn, grain sorghum, radish (Raphanus sativus L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and watermelon [Citrullis lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.] at rates ≥ 2.5 g·ha-1, and squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) at rates ≥ 5.0 g·ha-1 on a Dothan sand. In a Congaree silt loam, chlorimuron injured cucumber at rates ≥ 5.0 g·ha-1, sweet corn, watermelon, and squash at rates ≥ 10 g·ha-1, and grain sorghum, radish, and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) at rates ≥ 20 g·ha-1. Soybean and snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were tolerant to chlorimuron in both soil types. Cinmethylin activity was not altered by soil type, but with chlorimuron greater crop injury was observed in the Dothan sand than in the Congaree silt loam. Sweet corn and grain sorghum were the most sensitive indicator species to cinmethylin and cucumber was the most sensitive to chlorimuron in both soils. Plant emergence and population alone are not valid indicators for crop tolerance to herbicides. Quantitative measurements such as shoot dry weight were more indicative of crop susceptibility to chlorimuron than plant populations. Chemical names used: exo -1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-2 -[(2-methylphenyl) methoxy]-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane (cinmethylin); 2-[[[[(4-chloro-6-methoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)amino] carbonyl]amino] sulfonyl]benzoic acid (chlorimuron).
A field experiment was conducted for 2 years to determine the effects of rate and time interval for repeated applications of the plant growth regulators (PGR) flurprimidol and paclobutrazol on vegetative suppression of `Tifway' bermudagrass [Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy × C. dactylon (L.) Pers.]. Suppression of vegetative growth of this grass was generally the same when either flurprimidol or paclobutrazol was applied twice after a 2-, 3-, or 4-week interval. The duration of growth suppression was also similar after initial application with flurprimidol at 0.84 kg·ha-l and repeated at 0.28 to 0.84 kg·ha-1 or with paclobutrazol applied initially at 1.1 kg·ha-1 an d repeated at 0.56 to 1.1 kg·ha-1. Both PGRs caused slight to moderate turfgrass injury at these rates, but the injury was temporary and the grass had fully recovered by 10 weeks. Chemical names used: α -(1-methylethyl)- α -[4-(trifluoromethoxy)-phenyl]-5-pyrimidinemethanol (flurprimidol); (±)-(R*R*) β -[(4-chlorophenyl)-methyl]- α -(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-l-ethanol (paclobutrazol).
Fenoxaprop (0.027, 0.036, and 0.045 kg·ha-1) was field-applied at either of 2-, 3-, or 4-week intervals to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) naturally infested with smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl.] in Maryland (Easton and Silver Spring) during 1989 and 1990. In 1989, fenoxaprop applied at 2- or 3-week intervals at 0.027 kg·ha-1 provided fair (>74%) to good (>80%) smooth crabgrass control. Fenoxaprop applied at 0.036 or 0.045 kg·ha-1 at 2- or 3week intervals provided good to excellent (> 90%) smooth crabgrass control. Four-week intervals generally provided control that was inferior to the shorter application intervals at Silver Spring but not at Easton. In 1990, all rates provided good to excellent smooth crabgrass control when applied at 2- or 3-week intervals in Easton. At Silver Spring, where smooth crabgrass levels were very high, >88% control was provided by 0.036 kg·ha-1 applied at a 2-week interval and by 0.045 kg·ha-1 applied at either a 2- or 3-week interval. Chemical name used: [±]-2-[4-[(6 chloro-2 benzoxazolyl)oxy]phenoxy] propanoic acid (fenoxaprop).
A study was initiated at Bracy's Nursery, Amite, La., in Apr. 1997 to evaluate the influence of seven controlled-release fertilizer sources and three top-dressed application rates in production of 4-gal (15.7-L) containers of `LaFeliciana' peach and swamp red maple. The fertilizers tested were Osmocote Plus 15-9-11, Osmocote Plus 16-8-12, Woodace 20-5-10, Woodace 20-4-11, Customblen 24-4-6, Nutricote (Type 270) 17-7-8, and Nutricote (Type 360) 17-6-8. Application rates were 1.75, 2.25, and 2.75 lb N per cubic yard. The experiment was completely randomized within blocks (species) and each treatment was replicated five times. A control treatment was also included. For `LaFeliciana' peach, Nutricote and Osmocote yielded the superior results when shoot height and visual quality ratings were determined in October (6 months after initiation). Increases in application rate did not significantly increase shoot height or visual quality ratings in most cases. For swamp red maple, shoot height was not affected by fertilizer source or application rate. Caliper ranged from 19.2 to 23.0 mm but was only slightly influenced by fertilizer source and application rate. Visual quality ratings were significantly higher for Osmocote Plus 16-8-12 when compared to some of the other fertilizer sources.