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period during seed development for the light environment effects on seed germinability and longevity was at the end of seed development after physiological maturity (moment of maximum seed dry weight accumulation). Because of the importance of phytochrome

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carota ), tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ), and cucumber. Laboratory experiments have shown that compounds produced by brassica cover crops can inhibit weed seed germination ( Norsworthy and Meehan, 2005a , 2005b ; Norsworthy et al., 2006 ). Studies with

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). The aim of the present work was to develop efficient protocols for seed and clonal propagation of C. nepeta to facilitate its introduction in the horticultural and pharmaceutical industry. Seed germination, as well as micropropagation starting with

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. Unfortunately, seed germination of mountain laurel has been challenging for breeders. Mountain laurel seeds generally become fully mature in 5 months after fertilization ( Jaynes, 1988 ). Mature seeds only yield ≈30% to 40% of germination and often require up to

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Debergh, 1986a ), ultrasound ( Miyoshi and Mii, 1988 ), and chilling ( Chu and Mudge, 1994 ; Shimura and Koda, 2005 ). However, it is not clear whether the improvement in seed germination after various pretreatments is the result of a reduction in the

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to solve supply and demand, protect germplasm resource, and enrich genetic diversity of this species. Environmental factors such as light and temperature are known to affect seed germination in Asclepiadaceae family. Seeds of Calotropis procera and

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concentration (to 40% and 5% at 50 and 100 m m NaCl, respectively) than Florida (to 60% and 25% at 50 and 100 m m NaCl, respectively). Fig. 1. Seed germination percentages of salt-tolerant species (‘Florida’ celery, ‘Ventura’ celery, and cabbage) and

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-promoting substances, and watering frequencies on seed germination and seedling growth of A. ferox ; and 2) to assess the applicability of an in vitro propagation protocol developed for other Aloe spp. Materials and Methods Seed collection. Dried seeds of A. ferox

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repellency within the seeds’ microsite ( Madsen et al., 2012 ). With hydrologic function restored around the seed, soil water infiltration, percolation, and retention is improved, which enhances seed germination and plant survival ( Moore et al., 2010

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contamination than using vegetative parts of plants. However, sugar pine seeds are difficult to germinate and are characterized by irregular germination from diverse sources ( Baron, 1978 ; Krugman, 1966 ). Seed germination is a complex process governed by

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