Experiments were conducted with four kinds of flowering plants to compare one-time vs. continuous application of paclobutrazol in subirrigation water. When a crop reached the stage at which it required growth regulator treatment, four concentrations of paclobutrazol were applied via subirrigation either one-time or continuously until the crop was terminated. Based upon regression equations, concentrations resulting in 30% size reduction for one-time applications of paclobutrazol were 0.01 mg·L-1 for Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum `Cocktail Gin', 0.09 mg·L-1 for Impatiens wallerana Hook. `Super Elfin White', 0.2 mg·L-1 for Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura `Tara', and 2.4 mg·L-1 for Petunia ×hybrida Vilm.-Andr. `Plum Crazy'. Respective optimal values for continuous application were 0.005, 0.02, 0.06, and 0.4 mg·L-1. Increasing the concentration for continuous application had a greater effect on paclobutrazol efficacy than did increasing the concentration for a single application. In a trial with impatiens `Super Elfin Salmon Blush', the paclobutrazol concentration was reduced 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% (single application) for each successive subirrigation event following an initial application of 0.1 mg·L-1 of paclobutrazol. The 50%, 75%, and 100% reduction treatments provided similar levels of size control. Dilution was more important when the reduction rate was less than 50%. Chemical name used: (±)-(R*,R*)-β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).
J.B. Million, J.E. Barrett, T.A. Nell, and D.G. Clark
J.B. Million, J.E. Barrett, T.A. Nell, and D.G. Clark
Contamination of recirculated subirrigation water with growth retardants poses a potential problem for growers. Eight concentrations of ancymidol or paclobutrazol ranging from 0 to 100 μg·L-1 (0 to 1000 μg·L-1 for petunia) were supplied constantly in subirrigation water to potted plants to identify critical levels at which plant growth is affected. Concentrations of ancymidol resulting in 20% reduction in plant size relative to untreated controls were 3, 10, 98, 80, and 58 μg·L-1 for Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum Hort. `Gin', chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflora Kitam.) `Nob Hill', Impatiens walleriana Hook f. `Super Elfin Coral', Petunia ×hybrida Hort. Vilm.-Andr. `Madness Pink', and Salvia splendens Sell ex Roem. & Schult. `Red Hot Sally', respectively. Respective values for paclobutrazol were 5, 24, 17, 390, and >100 μg·L-1. The results provide useful information for managing potential growth retardant contamination problems or for applying growth retardants in subirrigation water. Chemical names used: α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol); (±)-(R*,R*)-β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).
Kimberly A. Klock-Moore and Timothy K. Broschat
Two experiments were conducted to compare the growth of `Ultra White' petunia (Petunia ×hybrida) plants in a subirrigation system versus in a hand-watered system. In Expt. 1, petunia plants were watered with 50, 100, or 150 ppm (mg·L-1) of N of Peter's 20-10-20 (20N-4.4P-16.6K) and in Expt. 2, Nutricote 13-13-13 (13N-5.8P-10.8K) type 100, a controlled release fertilizer, was incorporated into the growing substrate, prior to transplanting, at rates of 3, 6, or 9 lb/yard3 (1.8, 3.6, or 4.5 kg·m-3). In both experiments, there was no difference in petunia shoot dry mass or final flower number between the irrigation systems at the lowest fertilization rate but differences were evident at the higher fertilization rates. In Expt. 1, shoot dry mass and flower number of subirrigated petunia plants fertilized with 100 ppm of N was greater than for hand-watered plants fertilized at the same rate. However, subirrigated petunia plants fertilized with 150 ppm of N were smaller with fewer flowers than hand-watered petunia plants fertilized with 150 ppm of N. Substrate electrical conductivity (EC) concentrations for petunia plants subirrigated with 150 ppm of N were 4.9 times greater than concentrations in pots hand-watered with 150 ppm of N. In Expt. 2, subirrigated petunia plants fertilized with 6 and 9 lb/yard3 were larger with more flowers than hand-watered plants fertilized at the same rates. Although substrate EC concentrations were greater in subirrigated substrates than in hand-watered substrates, substrate EC concentrations of all hand-watered plants were about 0.35 dS·m-1. Subirrigation benches similar to those used in these experiments, appear to be a viable method for growing `Ultra White' petunia plants. However, the use of Peter's 20-10-20 at concentrations greater than 100 ppm of N with subirrigation appeared to be detrimental to petunia growth probably because of high EC concentrations in the substrate. On the other hand, the use of subirrigation with Nutricote 13-13-13 type 100 incorporated at all of the rates tested did not appear to be detrimental to petunia growth.
Bryan J. Peterson, Olivia Sanchez, Stephanie E. Burnett, and Darren J. Hayes
systems ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1. Representative cuttings of coleus after 3 weeks in each of the four propagation systems: overhead mist (OM), submist (SM), subirrigation (SI), and subfog (SF). Cuttings in the SM systems produced longer, thinner roots than
Sven E. Svenson, Dave Adams, and R.L. Ticknor
Roots growing out of container drainholes, and weeds growing on the sandbed surface, are the two major problems associated with the use of sandbed subirrigation systems for nursery crop production. Adjusting the water level within the sandbed, application of herbicides to the sandbed surface, placing weed barriers on the sandbed surface, and placing copper hydroxide-treated weed barriers on the sandbed surface were tested to control rooting-out and weed growth. Coppertreated barriers provided the best control of rooting-out and weed growth without reducing the shoot growth of heather, forsythia, or weigela. Several herbicides provided good control of rooting-out and weed growth without reducing the shoot growth of daphne.
Traci Armstrong, Matthew W. Kent, and David Wm. Reed
With the rising concern for the environment and an increase in governmental regulation, greenhouse growers must find alternative methods for irrigation that will avoid ground and surface water contamination. Subirrigation is one of these alternatives, but subirrigation is more sensitive to water quality than traditional systems and many growers are faced with poor water quality. This experiment tested seven different water sources from across the state of Texas. Each source was replicated twice using New Guinea impatiens `Illusion'. Leaf count, plant height, and plant width were measured at 2-week intervals. Plants were harvested at 8 weeks and measured for shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and overall quality. Electrical conductivity of the upper, middle, and bottom layers of the container medium was measured. Compared to the reverse osmosis control, fresh weight was reduced by 12% to 30%, average leaf number by –7% to 56%, quality evaluation by –8% to 61%, average width by –5% to 27%, and the average height by 8% to 34%. The results will be explained based on differences in analysis of the various water and media samples.
Hongyi Zhang and William R. Graves
A rapid, easy, and economical way to root softwood cuttings of red maple (Acer rubrum L. and A. × freemanii E. Murray) has been developed. Single-node cuttings were treated with 8 g IBA/kg and inserted in flats of perlite. Flats were placed in larger trays without drainage holes. Cuttings were subirrigated by adding a complete solution with 100 mg N/L to trays, saturating perlite at the bottom of the flat, below the cuttings. After 3 weeks, 94, 98, 100, and 100% of cuttings of `Indian Summer', `Autumn Flame', `Red Sunset', and `Autumn Blaze' had rooted, respectively. Leaves on cuttings remained turgid without mist or fog. In a subsequent study of `Red Sunset', 0, 50, and 100 mg N/L in the subirrigation solution resulted in 37, 100, and 100% rooting with 8 g IBA/kg and 0, 43, and 67% rooting without IBA. Rooting was fastest and chlorophyll in leaves was highest with both IBA and nutrients. Subirrigation can replace mist or fog when rooting cuttings of red maple.
Matthew W. Kent and David W. Reed
The effects of cations vs. anions in salinity studies cannot be separated by traditional means. Analysis of mixture experiments allows ionic ef-fects to be analyzed individually by varying proportions of ions without changing their total concentrations. A series of mixture experiments were performed in the greenhouse to determine the effects of the anions bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate, given a constant and equal concentration of the cation sodium, on vinca `Pacifica Red' grown with different irrigation systems and leaching fractions. In subirrigation, increasing total ion concentrations from 30 to 60 meq/L total ion concentrations (TIC) caused a general decrease in shoot fresh and dry weights, with bicarbonate contributing to the greatest degree of reduction, and sulfate the least. Root dry weight was similarly decreased with increasing TIC, but the differences between individual ion effects were more subtle. SPAD data, an indication of chlorophyll concentration, showed a sharp decrease with increase in bicarbonate, but not with sulfate or chloride. Medium pH increased as TIC increased, being influenced primarily by bicarbonate. Conversely, growing medium EC was influenced most by sulfate and chloride, and least by bicarbonate with increasing TIC. At 30 meq/L TIC, top-watered treatments with a leaching fraction (LF) of 5% generally had reduced shoot and root dry weight without regard to ion species, while a leaching fraction of 35% produced results more similar to those of subirrigation. While medium EC and pH varied with layer and irrigation method, bicarbonate generally affected EC least and pH most.
Hongyi Zhang and William R. Graves
A subirrigation method for rooting stem cuttings was compared to intermittent mist. Both methods resulted in 100% rooting of `Charm' chrysanthemum [Dendranthema × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] and coleus (Coleus × hybridus Voss.) after 2 weeks. Subirrigated cuttings of `Charm' chrysanthemum had a lower mean root dry mass than misted cuttings, but root dry mass of coleus was not affected. Percentage rooting and mean root dry mass of subirrigated cuttings of `Franksred' red maple (Acer rubrum L.) were 95% and 321 mg, whereas the mean root dry mass of the 33% of cuttings that rooted under mist was 38 mg. For Japanese tree lilac [Syringa reticulata (Blume) Hara], the percentage of cuttings with living callus, mean callus diameter, and percentage rooting were higher for subirrigated cuttings than for misted cuttings. In a second study, cuttings of `Franksred' red maple were subirrigated with a solution containing 0 to 7.2 mol N/m3 and not misted. Cuttings given 3.6 or 7.2 mol N/m3 had > 90% rooting after 2 weeks, whereas only 8% of unfertilized cuttings had rooted, and root mass and chlorophyll content were highest for cuttings given 7.2 mol N/m3. Subirrigation can replace mist during propagation of some florist and nursery crops, and subirrigating with fertilizer solution improves rooting of `Franksred' red maple.
Ahmed A. Al-Badawy, James E. Barrett, and Terril A. Nell
To evaluate importance of paclobutrazol residues on surfaces, begonia (Begonia semperflorens) cv. Whisky and chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora) cv. Coral Davis plants were grown in flats sprayed with paclobutrazol at 0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm.
For begonia, the plant heights at 2 and 4 weeks after treatments were decreased by 39 to 49% and by 55-69%, respectively. The overall change in height ranged from 2.1 to 4.9 cm compared to 15.3 cm for the control plants.
For chrysanthemum, a reduction in plant height was observed and the overall change in height ranged from 2.9 to 5.6 cm compared to 28.8 cm for the control plants.
Based on these results, there is a potential for paclobutrazol to affect non-target plants when subirrigation is used.