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Uttara C. Samarakoon, Keith A. Funnell, David J. Woolley, Barbara A. Ambrose, and Ed R. Morgan

the transition zone, hierarchical arrangement of buds within the cluster, and origin of floral shoots of gentian. The diagram of the crown bud cluster represent an elongation of the compressed cluster stem similar to when treated with gibberellic acid

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Tomohiro Jishi, Ryo Matsuda, and Kazuhiro Fujiwara

and red light irradiation. However, shoot fresh weight and dry weight were greater under simultaneous blue- and red-light irradiation. It remains unclear whether blue- and/or red-light monochromatic irradiation promotes growth through a change in

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Shinsuke Agehara and Daniel I. Leskovar

, limits stem elongation and overall shoot growth ( Rademacher, 2000 ), and its effectiveness is well documented in many ornamental species ( Blanchard and Runkle, 2007 ; Currey et al., 2012 ; Gibson and Whipker, 2001 , 2003 ). Recently, uniconazole was

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Ana V. de Souza, José E.B.P. Pinto, Suzan K.V. Bertolucci, Ricardo M. Corrêa, Larissa C. do B. Costa, and William E. Dyer

acid on shoot elongation. One-cm long shoots were cultured vertically in semisolid MS/4 medium containing 0.75% (w/v) sucrose, 0.7% Bacto agar, and 8.67 μ m gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) in culture tubes. Shoots were held in GA 3 medium for 5, 10, 15, or

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Yu-Tsung Lin, Chia-Wei Lin, Chien-Hung Chung, Mei-Hsiu Su, Hsiu-Yin Ho, Shi-Dong Yeh, Fuh-Jyh Jan, and Hsin-Mei Ku

weeks on regeneration medium (using various combinations of NAA, BA, and 2,4-D as shown in Table 1 ), callus, adventitious buds, or shoot primordia derived from cotyledon explants were excised and transferred to elongation medium (0.1 mg·L −1 BA, 0

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Sullivan Lynch, Rachel K. Johnston, Ron O. Determann, Jennifer M. Cruse-Sanders, and Gerald S. Pullman

, potentially reducing population persistence and survival in small isolated patches. In vitro propagation from seed, shoot tips, and rhizomes can multiply the number of individuals of an endangered species rapidly and continually ( Fay, 1992 ; Reed et al

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Israel Weiss, Yosef Mizrahi, and Eran Raveh

comparison with the ambient CO 2 /low nutrient combination ( Fig. 6 , Table 1 ). These effects were found to be synergistic ( Table 1 ). During January/February, the response of shoot elongation to elevated CO 2 was about 3-fold higher for the high nutrient

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Todd C. Einhorn, Mateus S. Pasa, and Janet Turner

shorter internodes compared with untreated shoots, mostly as a result of the inhibitory P-Ca effect over growth-active GA 1 ( Evans et al., 1999 ), which is responsible for internode elongation ( Owens and Stover, 1999 ). This modification to the

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Shinsuke Agehara and Daniel I. Leskovar

the medium surface to the shoot apex, and shoot height was measured up to the highest leaf tip by stretching the leaves. The length of the longest petiole was measured from the node to the leaf attachment point. Relative stem elongation rate (RSER, mm

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Aikaterini N. Martini and Maria Papafotiou

shoot elongation and maintenance of high shoot multiplication rates. Microshoots from advanced subcultures were cultured on medium with various indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) concentrations ( Martini and Papafotiou, 2016 ) to examine the effects of