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Karen R. Harris-Shultz, Brian M. Schwartz, and Jeff A. Brady

occur at random by a natural process such as transposon activity and problems with DNA repair ( Leroy and Leon, 2000 ; Wessler, 2001 ). A mutation in one cell of a layer of the shoot apical meristem increases by mitosis and produces a mutated sector

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Ravneet K. Sandhu, Nathan S. Boyd, Lincoln Zotarelli, Shinsuke Agehara, and Natalia Peres

of the same species (intraspecific) or plants of two or more species (interspecific). A meta-analysis of multiple cropping studies found that intraspecific competition tends to be much stronger than interspecific competition. In some cases

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Lakshmy Gopinath, Matthew Barton, and Justin Quetone Moss

NDVI and LF were determined every 3 d. At the end of the 30 d of study 2, shoots from all the four replications of each treatment were sent to the OSU Soil, Water and Forage Analytical Laboratory (SWFAL), Stillwater, OK, for plant tissue analysis

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Jane Kahia, Peter Kanze Sallah, Lucien Diby, Christophe Kouame, Margaret Kirika, Simeon Niyitegeka, and Theodore Asiimwe

newsletter, p. 8. Agricultural Information Offset Press, Fruit Garden Meghalaya, Shillong, India Vasudevan, A. Selvaraj, N. Sureshkumar, P. Ganapathi, A. 2001 Multiple shoot induction from shoot tip explant of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) Cucurbit Genet

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Jenjira Chumpookam, Huey-Ling Lin, and Ching-Chang Shiesh

irrigated three times weekly with water. At the end of the experiment, growth parameters were measured and mineral content was analyzed. The seedling vigor index (SVI) was calculated as SVI = [shoot length (mm) + root length (mm)] × percentage germination

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Natalie R. Bumgarner, Mark A. Bennett, Peter P. Ling, Robert W. Mullen, and Matthew D. Kleinhenz

thought to maintain or improve ornamental and vegetable plant growth and quality and lower aerial heating costs ( Janes and McAvoy, 1983 ; Sachs et al., 1992 ; Shedlosky and White, 1987 ; Trudel and Gosselin, 1982 ). Relative to shoot-zone heating and

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Todd W. Wert, Jeffrey G. Williamson, Jose X. Chaparro, E. Paul Miller, and Robert E. Rouse

obtained from a FAWN (Florida Automated Weather Network) station. Chilling (hours below 7.2 °C) was determined within each location starting during the first week of November and ending on 31 Jan. Three shoots representing growth that occurred the

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Bryant C. Scharenbroch

rates of each tree. In November of 2010, trees were carefully separated from the soils. Trees were washed with deionized water to remove all soil and all leaves were removed. Trees were cut at the root and shoot interface. Shoots and roots were dried at

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Han Xu, Cuihua Bai, Wei Wang, Changmin Zhou, Luwei Zhu, and Lixian Yao

South China, and shoots twice after harvest, followed by dormancy during November to December. In the spring, the floral bud differentiates and then blossoms in late March to early May, followed by fruit development from late March to August. Sample

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Yiyun Lin and Michelle L. Jones

shelf life during retailing, and improve landscape performance for the final consumers ( Parađiković et al., 2019 ). Formulated biostimulant products often combine multiple active ingredients and may include microbial and non-microbial components to