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. Unfortunately, seed germination of mountain laurel has been challenging for breeders. Mountain laurel seeds generally become fully mature in 5 months after fertilization ( Jaynes, 1988 ). Mature seeds only yield ≈30% to 40% of germination and often require up to

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to solve supply and demand, protect germplasm resource, and enrich genetic diversity of this species. Environmental factors such as light and temperature are known to affect seed germination in Asclepiadaceae family. Seeds of Calotropis procera and

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-promoting substances, and watering frequencies on seed germination and seedling growth of A. ferox ; and 2) to assess the applicability of an in vitro propagation protocol developed for other Aloe spp. Materials and Methods Seed collection. Dried seeds of A. ferox

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Distichlis spicata var. stricta (Torrey) Beetle is a native grass that tolerates salt, high pH, and some heavy metals. It has been proposed for use in several challenging environments, including mine spoils and salt-impacted areas of golf courses, but its widespread use has been hindered by several factors, one of which is seed dormancy. Dormancy appears to be coat-imposed and can be overcome by scarification in relatively young seed lots. Thirteen-year-old seeds germinated better without scarification. Seeds were tested at several constant and alternating temperatures. Temperatures around 30 °C seemed to give the highest percentage germination, approaching the viability that was shown by tetrazolium chloride tests for each seed lot. Alternating temperatures increased the germination of unscarified seeds but not as much as scarification did. Light appears to be unnecessary for germination.

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Plant growth and development is affected by various environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, and suboptimal temperatures. During the seed germination and seedling growth stages, plants are the most vulnerable to stresses ( Almansouri et al

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contamination than using vegetative parts of plants. However, sugar pine seeds are difficult to germinate and are characterized by irregular germination from diverse sources ( Baron, 1978 ; Krugman, 1966 ). Seed germination is a complex process governed by

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). The compound has recently been referred to as "karrikinolide" ( Commander et al., 2008 ). The action of smoke in promoting seed germination in many species is attributed to the presence of this compound ( Soos et al., 2009 ). Dixon and Roche (1995

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durations to evaluate the effects on seed germination, 2) to evaluate growth effects from various treatments, and 3) to determine whether the relative frequency of polyembryony is affected by EMS treatment. Materials and Methods Plant material and experiment

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adequate density and uniformity for play ( Green et al., 2018 ). Adverse conditions such as cold soil temperatures (≈10 °C) typical of early spring plantings in temperate areas of the northeastern United States can delay seed germination and diminish

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becoming a main environmental factor limiting seed germination and seedling growth in arid and semiarid regions ( Sekmen et al., 2012 ). Different levels of salinity stress can affect turfgrass adversely. These may include a series of morphological

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