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Seed germination and initial seedling growth are two important phases in classical plant breeding programs based on crosses between existing cultivars such as in olive species ( Olea europaea L.). Olive seed germination is slow, long-lasting (even

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carrot ( Rosenfeld, 2004 ). High temperature causes heat stress and is considered to be one of the major abiotic factors that limits carrot production because of its adverse effects on seed germination, seedling emergence, and plant growth ( Landjeva et

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, holds significant water in its layers, and seedlings can easily emerge through it upon germination ( Dana and Lerner, 2001 ). Walker et al. (1984) reported that watering was less frequent when a top coating was used in seed germination. A vermiculite

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with a high percentage of germination. In this study, our aim was to determine the optimal conditions for seed germination of eight Pedicularis species, based on their responses to light and several artificial treatments. Knowledge of the effects of

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conditions to which plants will be exposed in later stages of their life cycles ( Mohammad and Sen, 1990 ). Soil water supply is an important environmental factor controlling seed germination ( Kramer and Kozlowski, 1979 ). Osmotic solutions are often used

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seedcoat. The seedcoat can inhibit seed germination by virtue of mechanical restraint, acting as a barrier to gas or water exchange, or being a source of inhibitors ( Martinez-Honduvilla and Santos-Ruiz, 1978 ; Toole et al., 1956 ). Removing the seedcoat

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, 2000b ). Arancon et al. (2007) and Edwards et al. (2006) demonstrated an enhanced seed germination and growth of tomato and cucumber plants with the application of vermicompost extracts to the growth media. Lazcano et al. (2010) reported the

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of 10 to 15 cm. Alternatively, SMS may be blended with soil at a 50% soil : 50% SMS volume ratio and used as a topsoil. Some turf managers have reported that soil amended with fresh SMS may result in a delay or inhibition of turf seed germination

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tolerance to adverse conditions have increased and the commercial development of seashore paspalum cultivars has accelerated. Seed germination and seedling establishment are important stages in the field performance of crop plants. In the field, seed

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most vulnerable phase of the plant to salinity stress usually occurs at germination and seedling stages. Thus, it is worthwhile to clear the influence mechanisms of salt stress on seed germination. Then suitable measures should be developed to improve

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