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Dean A. Kopsell, Carl E. Sams, and Robert C. Morrow

efficient light harvesting to a state of high thermal energy dissipation, which is usually measured as a nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence ( Havaux et al., 2007 ). Zeaxanthin can modulate blue-light-dependent responses in plants and is

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Guoting Liang, Junhui Liu, Jingmin Zhang, and Jing Guo

coefficient: q P = ( F M ' – F S )/( F M ' – F 0 '); nonphotochemical quenching: NPQ = ( F M – F M ')/ F M '; and effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry: Ф PSII = ( F M ' – F S )/ F M ' ( Liang et al., 2017 ). Measurement of antioxidant enzyme

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Cristhian Camilo Chávez-Arias, Sandra Gómez-Caro, and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

) (F v /F m ), photochemical quenching (qP), and a high nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) have been reported under waterlogging conditions ( Liu et al., 2014 ; Wu et al., 2015 ). Moderate periods of hypoxia (6–8 d) also have caused a reduction in plant

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Jinhong Yuan, Man Xu, Wei Duan, Peige Fan, and Shaohua Li

transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. BBA-Gen Subjects 990 87 92 Horton, P. Ruban, A.V. Walters, R.G. 1994 Regulation of light harvesting in green plants (indication by nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence) Plant Physiol. 106

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Jack Olson and Matthew Clark

. Chl a / b are essential pigments in plants for harvesting light used in photosynthesis to produce energy, and carotenoids are essential for photoprotection of chloroplast photosystems via nonphotochemical quenching ( Bartley and Scolnik, 1995

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David A. Felicetti and Larry E. Schrader

increase indicates a need for increased nonphotochemical quenching capacity, which suggests that the SB peel types received more irradiation than the NB peel type. However, the relative lack of differences among the SB peel types suggests 1) there is no

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Yong In Kuk and Ji San Shin

min to fully open all photosystem (PS) II reaction centers (oxidize Qa), and also to dissipate the transthylakoid pH gradient to eliminate nonphotochemical quenching ( Krause et al., 1983 ). A minimal fluorescence yield, F 0 , was obtained upon

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Lie Li, Yu-xin Tong, Jun-ling Lu, Yang-mei Li, and Qi-chang Yang

PSII quantum yield (F v /F m ), the efficiency of excitation capture by the open PSII center (F v ′/F m ′), actual photochemical quantum efficiency (Φ PSII ), electron transfer rate (ETR), photochemical quenching (qP), and nonphotochemical quenching

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Huihui Zhang, Ping Yu, Min Song, Dalu Li, Qianqian Sheng, Fuliang Cao, and Zunling Zhu

, photosynthesis, and growth potential of grafted seedlings ( Zheng et al., 2010 ). They also substantially reduce nonphotochemical quenching and promote light energy absorption and utilization by grafted seedlings ( Li et al., 2017 ; Sang et al., 2017 ). Several

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Mengyang Liu, Yin Lu, Shan Wang, Fang Wu, Jingrui Li, Yanhua Wang, Jianjun Zhao, and Shuxing Shen

yield of light-induced nonphotochemical quenching Y (NPQ) and quantum yield of nonregulated energy dissipation Y (NO) ( Kramer et al., 2004 ). Although ΦII was lower in hy than those in WT, Y (NPQ) was much higher than WT ( Table 2 ). Table 2