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ex Fr.) has become the most common disease of arrowhead vine. This opportunistic airborne fungal pathogen particularly occurs during the ex vitro rooting of microcuttings after shoot culture because the cutting base is especially susceptible to this

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shoot organogenesis. Microcuttings derived from adventitious shoots of a cultivar were evaluated for both in vitro and ex vitro rooting. Results suggest that the developed protocols could be used for micropropagation, genetic transformation or both of

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acclimatized over 4 weeks. Two months after transplanting, plants were transferred to the greenhouse. Additional studies were conducted to evaluate ex vitro rooting. Shoots 2 to 4 cm long were harvested from cultures in shoot elongation medium. The base of 48

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Mahonia have been successfully achieved both in vitro and ex vitro using a variety of auxins. Mackay et al. (1996) achieved nearly 100% rooting of M. trifoliata in vitro using 1.0 μM naphthaleneacetic acid on cultures younger than 6 months. However

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inconsistent. Furthermore, attempts to promote vegetative and root growth during ex vitro acclimatization have achieved limited success. Thillerot et al. (2006) reported very slow growth of P. cynaroides explants with no root growth after 2 months in ex

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abnormal. Statistical analysis. Ex vitro results were analyzed using MINITAB® release 14 statistical package (Minitab Inc., State College, PA). One-way analysis of variance was conducted to test Fisher's significance level at 5%. Percentage germination data

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relative to some woody plants with episodic growth, such as species of Fagus and Juglans ( McCown and McCown, 1987 ). The initial ex vitro rooting treatment using a 10% auxin solution yielded somewhat low mean (± se ) rooting percentages of 30 ± 5

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shoot formation. ( A ) Flowering plant. ( B ) Multiple shoot formation from protocorms in Murashige and Skoog medium + 13.3 μM N 6 -benzyladenine. ( C ) In vitro-rooted shoots ready for ex vitro culture. ( D ) Plants obtained from in vitro culture after

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Paphiopedilum micropropagation from ex vitro–derived explants has been relatively limited. Its difficulty has been caused by contamination of ex vitro–derived explants and the poor development of explants ( Huang, 1988 ; Stewart and Button, 1975 ). There have

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BA 1 mg·L −1 and NAA 0.1 mg·L −1 ; ( E ) in vitro rooted shoots ready for ex vitro culture; ( F ) plantlets of O. tigrinum after successful establishment in soil for 2 months. Bar = 1 cm. PLBs = protocorm-like bodies; NAA = α-naphthaleneacetic acid

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