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Sergio Castro-Garcia, Uriel A. Rosa, Christopher J. Gliever, David Smith, Jacqueline K. Burns, William H. Krueger, Louise Ferguson and Kitren Glozer

Table olives (Olea europaea) traditionally are hand harvested when green in color and before physiological maturity is attained. Hand harvesting accounts for the grower's main production costs. Several mechanical harvesting methods have been previously tested. However, tree configuration and fruit injury are major constraints to the adoption of mechanical harvesting. In prior work with a canopy shaker, promising results were attained after critical machine components were reconfigured. In this study, stereo video analysis based on two high-speed cameras operating during the harvesting process were used to identify the sources of fruit damage due to canopy-harvester interaction. Damage was subjectively evaluated after harvest. Fruit mechanically harvested had 35% more bruising and three times as many fruit with broken skin as that of hand-harvested fruit. The main source of fruit damaged in the canopy was the strike-impact of fruit by harvester rods. Implementation of softer padding materials were effective in mitigating fruit injury caused by the impact of rods and hard surfaces. Canopy acceleration was correlated with fruit damage, thus restricting improvements needed for fruit removal efficiency through increased tine frequency.

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Imen Rekik, Amelia Salimonti, Naziha Grati Kamoun, Innocenzo Muzzalupo, Oliver Lepais, Sophie Gerber, Enzo Perri and Ahmed Rebai

In Tunisia, olive ( Olea europaea L.) is cultivated throughout the country. Olive farms cover more than one-third of arable land producing 6.0% of the world's olive production and contributing 45.0% of food export receipts, 4.5% of total exports

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Ricardo Fernández-Escobar, Miguel A. Sánchez-Zamora, Jorge M. García-Novelo and Concepción Molina-Soria

The current fertilization practice in olive ( Olea europaea L.) orchards usually leads to excessive fertilizer applications. These are unnecessary to maintain high productivity and growth, may contribute to environmental degradation ( Fernández

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Kelly Nascimento-Silva, Luis Roca-Castillo, María Benlloch-González and Ricardo Fernández-Escobar

Olive leaf spot, incited by the fungus Venturia oleaginea (Castagne) Rossman & Crous, is the most important foliar disease of the olive ( Olea europaea L.). This disease is widespread in many olive-growing regions of the world (Trapero Casas et

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Milad El Riachy, Luis Rallo, Raúl de la Rosa and Lorenzo León

Juvenile period is defined as the time during which a seedling cannot achieve and sustain the capacity or potential to flower. This period can persist up to 30 to 40 years in some fruit species ( Hackett, 1985 ). In olive ( Olea europaea L.), JP

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Isaac Zipori, Arnon Dag, Yizhar Tugendhaft and Reuven Birger

World production of table olives ( Olea europaea L.) has shown a steady increase for the last 20 years at an average rate of 100,000 t/year, reaching 2,526,000 tons in 2011–12 [ International Olive Council (IOC), 2012 ]. In parallel, world

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Virginia Pinillos and Julián Cuevas

. Literature Cited Almeida, F.J. 1940 Safra e contra-safra na oliveira Bul. Minist. da Agr. Portugal N° 7 Lisbon Cuevas, J. 1992 Incompatibilidad polen-pistilo, procesos gaméticos y fructificación de cultivares de olivo ( Olea europaea L.) PhD diss, Univ

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Ana Morales-Sillero, María Paz Suárez, María Rocío Jiménez, Laura Casanova, José Ordovás and Pilar Rallo

Seed germination and initial seedling growth are two important phases in classical plant breeding programs based on crosses between existing cultivars such as in olive species ( Olea europaea L.). Olive seed germination is slow, long-lasting (even

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Gabriela Vuletin Selak, Slavko Perica, Smiljana Goreta Ban, Mira Radunic and Milan Poljak

and elevation in Israel Clim. Res. 1 125 132 Ateyyeh, A.F. Stosser, R. Qrunfleh, M. 2000 Reproductive biology of the olive ( Olea europaea L.) cultivar ‘Nabali Baladi’ J. Appl. Bot. 74 255 270 Barranco, D. Milona, G. Rallo, L. 1994 Épocas de floración

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Maurizio Micheli, Daniel Fernandes da Silva, Daniela Farinelli, Graziana Agate, Rafael Pio and Franco Famiani

( Olea europaea L.) is usually propagated through conventional asexual methods, such as by cutting or grafting. However, these techniques have some limitations because they are too slow and/or are inefficient for some cultivars with a high commercial