General guidelines for the fertilization of azaleas in Southern landscapes often suggest applications be made after bloom. Early fertilizations are thought to encourage earlier blooms which are more likely to be damaged by spring freezes. Three years of data will be presented. Treatments include four fertilization rates, and various times of application from early (December-January) to late (March-April). Four to six varieties were evaluated (depending on the year of the study) in the SFA Ruby M. Mize Azalea Garden and in plantings on the Stephen F. Austin State Univ. campus. A randomized complete block design was utilized with three plants per replication. Influence of timing and rate of fertilizer application on bloom date and persistence. Influence of fertilizer treatments on leaf nutrient concentrations will be presented.
Julie Fulenwider* and David Creech
Michael W. Smith, Becky S. Cheary, and Becky L. Carroll
Nitrogen was applied between 1996 and 2002 to grafted `Mohawk' pecan (Carya illinoinensis Wangenh. C. Koch.) trees at 75 or 150 kg·ha-1 either as a single application in March or as a split application with 60% applied in March and 40% the first week of June. In 1997 and 2001, a spring freeze damaged developing shoots and buds, resulting in a small, noncommercial crop and the June portion of the N application was withheld. Nitrogen was also applied during the first week in October at 0 or 50 kg·ha-1 N if the crop load before fruit thinning in August was ≥40% fruiting shoots. There were few differences in the percentage of fruiting shoots or cluster size associated with N rate or applying N as a single or split application. Leaf N concentrations were either not affected by treatment or the results were inconsistent. Omitting the June application when a crop failure occurred did not affect the percentage of fruiting shoots the following year. October N application either did not affect or reduced the percentage of fruiting shoots the following year, and had no influence on leaf N concentration in July or October. These results indicate that the only advantage of a split N application is the option of withholding the second portion in the event of a crop failure. However, the added expense associated with splitting the N application versus the risk of crop failure must be assessed for each situation to determine if this is a sound economic practice. These data do not support an October N application when the crop is ≥40% fruiting shoots to reduce irregular bearing.
Paul R. Adler, Robert J. Dufault, and Luther Waters Jr.
Single applications of ancymidol at 0.03, 0.12, 0.50, or 1.0 mg/plant were soil applied to asparagus seedlings (Asparagus officinalis L.) 3.5, 5.5, or 7.5 weeks after seeding. Increasing ancymidol rates from 0.03 to 1.0 mg/plant decreased bud number, fern dry weight, but not shoot number at all application times. When ancymidol was applied at 1.0 mg/plant at 3.5 weeks it reduced fleshy root production, but in plants treated at 5.5 to 7.5 weeks, it did not reduce fleshy root production. Increasing ancymidol rates from 0.03 to 1.0 mg/plant reduced the crown dry weight of plants 5.5 weeks and younger. Ancymidol from 0.03 to 1.0 mg/plant applied to 3.5-week-old plants increased the partitioning of dry matter into fern rather than crowns, but delaying application to 7.5 weeks after seeding reversed this relationship suggesting increased carbohydrate storage. Application of ancymidol from 0.03 to 1.0 mg/plant to plants 5.5-weeks-old or younger was considered detrimental to plant growth. Ancymidol at 0.50 mg/plant or less applied to 7.5-week-old plants enhanced the production of a stocky, compact transplant. Chemicals used. Ancymidol: α-cycloprophyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol.
Guihong Bi, Carolyn F. Scagel, and Richard Harkess
or quality ( Yeager et al., 1993 ). To optimize N fertilizer management in hydrangea production, knowledge of how rate and method of N fertilizer application influence plant performance is essential. Published literature on N use (optimum amount
Thomas H. Yeager
Ilex vomitoria Ait. `Nana' root and-shoot growth increased as rate of fertilizer applied from a 6N-1P-3K solution increased from 0.5 to 2.5 g N/3-liter container during a 26-week experiment. Percentage of applied N, P, and Kin the plant and growth medium decreased as N applied increased. Dividing the fertilizer among one, two, or four applications per week resulted in similar use of applied N, P, and K. Shoot dry weights for the 0.5 g N/container treatment were less than for the Osmocote (18N-2.6P-10K) treatment (2.5 g N/container), but the percentage of applied N, P, and K in the plant and growth medium (55%, 42%, and 75%, respectively) was greater than for the Osmocote treatment (31%, 15%, and 27%, respectively).
Katharine B. Perry, C. Terry Morrow, Albert R. Jarrett, and J. David Martsolf
Two related sprinkler application rate models used in frost protection, published in the mid-1960s, are shown to include an assumption leading to the erroneous conclusion that humidity does not affect the determination of the application rate. A third, 1981 model documents the effect humidity has on the application rate calculation. A distribution factor accounting for nonuniform application is described.
G. Stephen Crnko, Edward W. Bush, and Allen D. Owings
A study was initiated to determine the effects of fall fertilization, specifically N application rate and additions of supplemental K on the production of woody ornamental shrub species. The influence of two slow-release sources of K (4- and 8-month) in the form of K2SO4, three K application rates (0, 1, 2 lb/yd3), and four incorporated application rates of N (0, 1, 2, and 3 lb/yd3) from Osmocote Plus+ 15-9-11 were evaluated on the growth of `Fisher Pink' Indian azalea, glossy abelia, and `Tuscarora' crape myrtle. Growth of `Fisher Pink' azalea, as determined by shoot height and shoot width, increased as N rate increased from 1 to 3 lb/yd3 when compared to the control. The resulting growth index improved at the 2 and 3 lb/yd3 N rate when compared to the 0 and 1 lb/yd3 N rates. Height and width of glossy abelia at the 1 lb N rate with or without supplemental K applications increased when compared to some glossy abelia at the 3 lb N rate (primarily those with supplemental K). Glossy abelia at the 2 lb/yd3 N rate with 2 lb/yd3 N from 4-month 0-0-46 had significantly greater shoot dry weight when compared to the 3 lb/yd3 N rate with 2 lb/yd3 N from 8-month 0-0-46. The 1 to 3 lb/yd3 N application rate had more of a response on growth index, visual quality, and visual color on `Tuscarora' crape myrtle as compared to the 0 lb/yd3 N rate. In this study, the potential influence of supplemental K applications on plant growth was mostly evident for glossy abelia at the 2 lb/yd3 N rate and was not evident on azalea or crape myrtle.
Onion production requires N fertilization, yet use efficiency of applied N is low. Improvements may be possible with a better understanding of plant growth and nutrient requirements over time. Onion growth and nutrient uptake was extremely slow during the winter months following planting, then increased substantially in the spring. Onion leaf N concentrations declined with age, while bulb N concentrations fluctuated with growing conditions but showed no longterm trend. Responses to N application were due primarily to timing and less to rate applied. Nitrogen uptake increased in some cases very quickly following N application, and in other situations was still evident after 6½ months. Yield increases, however, occurred only for preplant and winter fertilizer applications, not for spring application. Yield responses to both timing and rate varied by cultivar, with the later maturing cultivar doing best at the highest rate of preplant and the higher 2 rates of the winter applied N fertilizer.
Anas D. Susila and Sal J. Locascio
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) was grown with polyethylene mulch and drip irrigation on a Millhopper fine sandy soil testing very high in P and low in organic matter during two season to evaluate the effect of S source, rate, and application methods on plant growth and yield of fruit. S rates of 34 and 68 kg S/ha were applied preplant (broadcast in the bed), by drip (10 weekly drip application), and by split applications (40% preplant and 60% drip). In split applications, S sources evaluated were ammonium sulfate and ammonium thiosulfate. Plant height was increased with S application from 0 to 68 kg S/ha in both studies. However, response on plant dry weight only occurred in Spring 1999. Total marketable yield was 17.9 tons/ha with 0 kg S/ha and was increased quadraticaly to 48.1 tons/ha with application of 68 kg S/ha in Spring 1999, but no response to S was obtained in the Spring 1998 study. Measured variable were not affected by S source and methods of application. Increasing S application from 0 to 68 kg S/ha reduced leaf and plant tissue P concentration 14% and 12% at mid season and 26% and 25% at late-season sampling, respectively. Application of 68 kg S/ha reduced soil pH ≈0.3 unit at the end of the season in both studies.
Agnes M.S. Nyomora, Patrick H. Brown, and Bill Krueger
Previous studies with tree species have demonstrated that foliar boron (B) promotes flowering, fruit set, and yield. However, for most species the optimum time for foliar B application has not been determined. This investigation was undertaken to study the effects of time and rate of B application on almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill D.A. Webb)] tissue B concentration, fruit set, and yield. Solubor (Na2B8O13.4H2O), a commercial product containing 20.5% B, was applied with a handgun sprayer either in September (3 weeks postharvest), December (dormancy), or February (budbreak) at rates of 0, 0.8, and 1.7 kg·ha-1 B to almond cv. Butte at one site (Parlier, Fresno County, Calif.), and of 0, 0.8, 1.25, 1.7, and 2.1 kg·ha-1 B on the same cultivar in August, September, or February at a second site (Orland, Glenn County, Calif.) using Borosol, a polyboronated commercial product containing 10% B. At site 1, September application was more effective in increasing tissue B concentration, fruit set, and yield than were December or February applications. The optimal rate was 0.8 to 1.7 kg·ha-1 B when applied in September. At site 2, application in 1996 and 1997 increased tissue B concentration almost linearly, especially when applied in August and February. Application at the highest rate (2.1 kg·ha-1 B) in September produced the greatest final fruit set and yield in 1996. February applications increased initial fruit set at both sites but were less effective than September applications in increasing yield. Application of B did not affect any yield variable in 1997. These results suggest that B should be applied immediately postharvest (September) for optimal effect on tissue B concentration, fruit set, and yield in almond.