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S.R. Drake, T.A. Eisele, M.A. Drake, D.C. Elfving, S.L. Drake, and D.B. Visser

This study was conducted over three crop seasons using 'Delicious' (Scarletspur strain) apple trees on MM.111 rootstock. The bioregulators aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and ethephon (ETH) were applied alone or in combinations at various time intervals before harvest. Fruit response to bioregulators was evaluated at harvest and after storage. AVG applied 4 weeks before first harvest retarded starch loss at harvest, retained greater firmness, and reduced internal ethylene concentration and watercore of fruit at harvest and after both regular and controlled atmosphere storage. AVG did not influence peel color (hue values), but the flesh color of treated apples was more green. AVG in all instances tended to reduce the sensory scores for apples and apple juice. In contrast, ETH enhanced starch hydrolysis, flesh color development (green to more yellow), and soluble solids concentration while reducing titratable acidity levels. ETH had no influence on fruit firmness at harvest, but reduced firmness levels after storage in an inverse relationship to the concentration applied. Sensory values for whole apples were not influenced by ETH treatment, but ETH improved sensory preference for apple juice, particularly at early harvest. Applying AVG before ETH enhanced soluble solids and sensory scores for both fruit and juice. Treating with AVG followed by ETH at 150 mg·L–1 permitted the maintenance of satisfactory firmness values (>53.4 N) after long-term storage along with better quality and sensory perceptions. Using specific combinations of both AVG and ETH permitted ETH-mediated improvements in objective and perceived fruit quality to be obtained without the losses in flesh firmness and storability due to uncontrolled ethylene evolution and ripening typically observed when ETH is applied alone preharvest.

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A. Raymond Miller, Thomas J. Kelley, and Brian D. White

A nondestructive method was developed utilizing a modified Trebor 101 watercore tester to evaluate the internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The method involved measuring the relative amount of visible-infrared light passing through the longitudinal midsection of whole cucumber fruit. Light transmission was quantified on a unitless sigmoid scale from 1 to 10, with light transmission and scale values positively related. Immediately after hand harvest, size 3F (47 to 51 mm in diameter) cucumbers exhibited transmission values between 2 and 3, regardless of cultivar. Following a mechanical-stress treatment, which simulated bruising incurred during harvesting and handling of cucumbers, the internal quality of the fruit declined and was associated with an increase to a value of 6 in light transmission compared to non-stressed fruit. Light transmission increased as the severity of stress applied to the fruit increased, and high light transmission values were evident throughout a 48 h storage period at room temperature. Light transmission values increased as fruit diameter decreased, but values within a particular size class of undamaged, hand-harvested fruit were consistent. Machine-harvested fruit (size 3F), evaluated just before processing, exhibited light transmission values from 2 to 8, but the majority of fruit fell within the transmission range of 2 to 3. When fruit exhibiting different light transmission values were speared (cut longitudinally into sixths), processed, and then visually evaluated by panelists, spears prepared from fruit exhibiting high transmission values were judged to be of lower quality than those prepared from fruit exhibiting low transmission values. Visible-infrared light transmission may be a valuable tool for detecting poor quality cucumbers before processing, and could allow the mechanical selection of high quality fruit on a large scale basis.

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, Bahman Shafii, and Zabihollah Zamani

and percentage of fruit with watercore was determined as: (number of fruits with the watercore/total number of sampled fruit) × 100. SDP of equatorial halves of each fruit at harvest was recorded by comparison with the SDP standard chart developed for

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Don C. Elfving, Stephen R. Drake, A. Nathan Reed, and Dwayne B. Visser

, Palo Alto, CA). Fruit disorders (scald, watercore, internal browning, bitter pit, fruit rots) were visually assessed by laboratory personnel and expressed as the percentage of each fruit sample showing the disorder. Analyses of variance or regression

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Toshihiro Saito, Norio Takada, Hidenori Kato, Shingo Terakami, and Sogo Nishio

accumulation of sugars translocated to fruit and their regulation J. Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci. 79 1 15 Yamaki, S. Kajiura, I. Omura, M. Matsuda, K. 1976 Watercore in Japanese pear ( Pyrus serotina Rehder var. ‘Culta’ Rehder). II. Chemical changes in watercored

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Dongfeng Liu, Junbei Ni, Ruiyuan Wu, and Yuanwen Teng

play important roles in sink tissues. A defective SOT in apple fruit leads to abnormal sorbitol accumulation in the apoplast and the fruit watercore disorder ( Gao et al., 2005 ). In this study, although expression of the two SOT genes in fruit flesh

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W. Robert Trentham, Carl E. Sams, and William S. Conway

. Vidal, A. Ruiz, O. 2004 Spermine accumulation under salt stress J. Plant Physiol. 161 35 42 Marlow, G.C. Loescher, W.H. 1984 Watercore Hort. Rev. (Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.) 6 189 251

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Moritz Knoche, Eckhard Grimm, and Henrik Jürgen Schlegel

-regulated phloem translocation hypothesis ( Lang, 1983 ) or as was demonstrated for water-cored apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) tissue ( Gao et al., 2005 ). Lack of response of to water uptake and transpiration. The absence of a significant effect of water

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Esmaeil Fallahi

the number of fruit with visible water core symptoms was recorded. The percentage of water core was calculated as the percentage of water-cored fruit in the total number of fruit evaluated for quality. SDP of equatorial slices of each fruit was

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Xue-Min Hou, Zi-Hua Wang, Xi-Min Deng, and Guo-Hui Li

Yamada, H. Morita, T. Amano, S. 2005 Water relations in fruit, leaves and stems of two apple cultivars that differ in susceptibility to watercore J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 80 70 74 Yamaki, S. Ino, M. 1992 Alteration of cellular compartmentation and