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with a high percentage of germination. In this study, our aim was to determine the optimal conditions for seed germination of eight Pedicularis species, based on their responses to light and several artificial treatments. Knowledge of the effects of

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. 2019 ; Shah et al. 2019 , 2020 ). Drought conditions drastically weaken the stand establishment by limiting the seed germination. Nevertheless, these yield losses in response to drought stress can be minimized in many crops by the development of

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conditions to which plants will be exposed in later stages of their life cycles ( Mohammad and Sen, 1990 ). Soil water supply is an important environmental factor controlling seed germination ( Kramer and Kozlowski, 1979 ). Osmotic solutions are often used

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seedcoat. The seedcoat can inhibit seed germination by virtue of mechanical restraint, acting as a barrier to gas or water exchange, or being a source of inhibitors ( Martinez-Honduvilla and Santos-Ruiz, 1978 ; Toole et al., 1956 ). Removing the seedcoat

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, 2000b ). Arancon et al. (2007) and Edwards et al. (2006) demonstrated an enhanced seed germination and growth of tomato and cucumber plants with the application of vermicompost extracts to the growth media. Lazcano et al. (2010) reported the

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of 10 to 15 cm. Alternatively, SMS may be blended with soil at a 50% soil : 50% SMS volume ratio and used as a topsoil. Some turf managers have reported that soil amended with fresh SMS may result in a delay or inhibition of turf seed germination

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tolerance to adverse conditions have increased and the commercial development of seashore paspalum cultivars has accelerated. Seed germination and seedling establishment are important stages in the field performance of crop plants. In the field, seed

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most vulnerable phase of the plant to salinity stress usually occurs at germination and seedling stages. Thus, it is worthwhile to clear the influence mechanisms of salt stress on seed germination. Then suitable measures should be developed to improve

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period during seed development for the light environment effects on seed germinability and longevity was at the end of seed development after physiological maturity (moment of maximum seed dry weight accumulation). Because of the importance of phytochrome

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). The aim of the present work was to develop efficient protocols for seed and clonal propagation of C. nepeta to facilitate its introduction in the horticultural and pharmaceutical industry. Seed germination, as well as micropropagation starting with

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