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Thomas Graham and Michael A. Dixon

application frequencies that are consistent with the tolerance thresholds of select woody perennial nursery species established previously ( Graham et al., 2009 ). Materials and Methods Plant material propagation. Liverwort samples were collected from a

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Rajendra P. Maurya, Dion M. Lewis and Jeff St. A. Chandler

Jamaican Ackee ( Blighia sapida L.) is a woody perennial, evergreen tree, which belongs to the family Sapindaceae. It was named Blighia sapida in honor of Captain William Bligh who in 1793 took plant samples to Kew Gardens in South London

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Lisa J. Rowland, Elizabeth L. Ogden, Mark K. Ehlenfeldt and Rajeev Arora

In preparation for winter, woody perennial plants of the temperate zone have evolved mechanisms to first enter a state of dormancy in late summer or early fall and then, as fall progresses, to develop cold hardiness. The development of cold

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Bhaskar R. Bondada

Leaves serve as the prime mediator with the environment above the soil surface and, despite their temporary nature, dominate the shoot system because they play multiple roles. For instance, in woody perennials, they protect the fruit and young

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Ravindra K. Hajela, Neerja Hajela, Mark G. Bolyard, Wayne M. Barnes and Mariam B. Sticklen

A simple gene transfer method based on Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of adventitious multiplication of Juneberry (Amelanchier laevis L.) basal shoots is described. Evidence is presented for successful integration and expression of a transformed gene in greenhouse-grown transgenic plants. This method can transform woody perennials that are difficult to regenerate from leaf disks, protoplasts, or other tissue culture regimens.

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Rajeev Arora and Lisa J. Rowland

; Warren, 1998 ). WINTER-HARDINESS AND CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPORTANCE OF DEACCLIMATION RESISTANCE AND REACCLIMATION ABILITY For winter survival, woody perennials not only must acclimate to cold, but also must resist premature deacclimation as a result of

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Scott R. Kalberer, Rajeev Arora, Norma Leyva-Estrada and Stephen L. Krebs

The winter hardiness of woody perennials is dependent on a variety of factors, including overall health and vigor, dormancy status, maximal cold hardiness, and resistance to additional nontemperature stressors. Of particular concern are the

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Thomas Graham, Ping Zhang, Youbin Zheng and Michael A. Dixon

environment. Materials and Methods Plant material. Five economically significant woody perennial nursery species [ Salix integra ‘Hakura Nishiki’; Weigela florida ‘Alexandra’; Spiraea japonica ‘Goldmound’; Hydrangea paniculata ‘Grandiflora

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James L. Green, James A. Robbins and Bruce A. Briggs

A closed, insulated, pallet production system (CIPPS) has been designed to meet current challenges: 1) Elimination of production related pollution. 2) Reduction and conservation of resources. 3) Improvement of working conditions. 4) Alternatives to pesticides. 5) Prevention of temperature extremes and rapid temperature fluctuations in the plant environment. Biological feasibility of CIPPS was established in research on pathogen epidemiology, water and fertilize efficiency, plant growth and development in CIPPS. Water and fertilizer ion movement-removal in the closed system was plant-driven in response to growth and transpiration; water and fertilizer use in CIPS was 10% of that applied to open containers. Growth of 28 plant species ranging from herbaceous annuals to woody perennials was greater in CIPPS than in control, individual containers. Phytophthora cinnamomi did not spread from inoculated to noninoculated plants within CIPPS. Inoculation with nonpathogenic bacteria increased plant growth (gfw) in CIPPS but not in open plant containers.

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Jude W. Grosser

The genetic engineering of horticultural crops to improve disease/insect resistance, cultivar quality, or other characteristics has become a primary area of focus for many research programs. The technique is attractive because a single beneficial trait can be added to an already successful cultivar without otherwise altering cultivar integrity. However, little information has been available regarding the performance of such transgenic plants in the field, particularly regarding woody perennial crops. The purpose of this colloquium is to provide the latest available information regarding the performance of transgenic plants in the field, covering a wide range of crops including vegetables, woody fruit trees, woody nut trees, and forest trees. Focus will be on the long-term expression of transgenes and promoter efficiency. The information provided should be particularly useful to researchers who are currently designing or performing experiments to improve horticultural crops by genetic engineering.