`Fuji', `Gala' and `Jonagold' apples (Malus×domestica Borkh.) from either regular-atmosphere (RA) or controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage can be fumigated with methyl bromide (MeBr) with minimal effects on fruit quality. Some quality loss, particularly in internal color, was possible at 48 and 56 g·m−3 MeBr doses for `Fuji', `Gala', and `Jonagold' apples from CA storage. `Braeburn' apples from either RA or CA storage were not good candidates for MeBr fumigation, particularly at 10 °C. Observed internal damage indicated that `Braeburn' apples from RA or CA cannot be fumigated with MeBr. Apples with watercore displayed increased internal breakdown after fumigation with MeBr. Regardless of cultivar, only apples of superior quality could tolerate the stress of MeBr fumigation.
S.R. Drake and H.R. Moffitt
James P. Mattheis
should be stored in air or CA storage and for what duration. The presence of watercore in susceptible cultivars also contributes to decisions related to storage type and duration as well as conditions of storage (temperature, O 2 and CO 2 concentrations
Takashi Nishizawa, Satoshi Taira, Masanori Nakanishi, Masanori Ito, Masahiro Togashi, and Yoshie Motomura
Acetaldehyde and ethanol production by muskmelon fruit were promoted by short-term shading of the plants for 5 days from 10 to 15 days prior to fruit maturation. Sucrose concentrations in the fruit flesh were reduced by shading, while fructose and glucose concentrations did not differ. Shading also accelerated the development of a “water-soaked” appearance in the flesh.
Jinwook Lee, In-Kyu Kang, Jacqueline F. Nock, and Christopher B. Watkins
‘Honeycrisp’ apple ( DeEll and Ehsani-Moghaddam, 2010 ) and superficial scald in ‘Golden Delicious’ apple ( McArtney et al., 2008 ). Preharvest 1-MCP treatment had few effects on the watercore development of ‘Delicious’ apple ( Elfving et al., 2007 ), but it
In a 2-year study, the benefits and risks of an initial low O2 stress treatment (ILOS; 0.04 kPa O2 for 10 days) as a supplement to 1.5 or 0.7 kPa O2 storage for controlling scald in `Starkrimson Delicious' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) were evaluated. The fruit were picked from 15 orchards and harvested over five successive weeks to generate a wide range in maturity. Storage in 0.7 kPa O2 did not adequately control scald in fruit picked at starch index between 1.0 and 2.1 (10% to 35% scald), but reduced watercore-induced breakdown in fruit picked at starch index ≥2.4 (0–9 scale). The ILOS treatment gave a statistically significant but commercially nonsignificant scald control benefit to fruit held in 1.5 kPa O2 in 1 year, but not to fruit held in 0.7 kPa O2. ILOS did not increase alcoholic taste, but increased skin purpling in 0.7 kPa O2-stored fruit from the final harvest in 1 year. ILOS decreased flesh firmness in fruit picked at starch index ≥1.7 and increased watercore-induced breakdown in fruit picked at starch index ≥2.1 in both years.
Ross E. Byers
AVG applied 2 to 6 weeks before the optimum harvest date for several cultivars dramatically reduced pre-harvest fruit drop. The loss of fruit firmness and starch loss after the optimum harvest date was reduced by AVG sprays. The development of watercore in `Starkrimson Delicious' and `York' and maturity cracking in `Rome' and `Golden Delicious' were delayed and/or prevented by AVG. Color development was slightly delayed for most red cultivars and `Golden Delicious'. Soluble solids concentration was generally unchanged. Airblast applications of 123 g·ha–1 AVG was no more effective than a standard rate of NAA (28 to 56 g·ha–1), but rates of 248 g·ha–1 AVG and above were more effective than NAA for most cultivars. When fruit were left on the tree for periods of 3 to 5 weeks after the optimum harvest date, NAA hastened the loss of fruit firmness and starch and NAA increased watercore of `Delicious' and maturity cracking of `Golden Delicious' and `Law Rome'. Soluble solids and red color were generally unaffected by NAA. Ethephon sprays hastened the rate of fruit drop. When NAA was tank mixed with ethephon, NAA delayed fruit drop caused by ethephon, but AVG did not. The use of superior oil or Regulaid surfactant did not affect NAA or AVG responses; however, the silicone surfactant Silwet L-77, in one experiment, promoted the effectiveness of AVG. Tank mixing NAA or AVG with pesticides (Guthion + Lannate + Captan) did not affect the responses of AVG or NAA on fruit drop.
Satoru Tsuchikawa, Sanae Kumada, Kinuyo Inoue, and Rae-Kwang Cho
Time-of-flight near-infrared spectroscopy (TOF-NIRS) was used to investigate optical characteristics of water-cored tissue in `Fuji' apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh. Mansf.)]. The combined effects on the time resolved profiles of water core, laser beam wavelength, and detection position of transmitted light were investigated in detail. Attenuance of peak maxima (At), time delay of peak maxima (Δt), and variation of full width at half maximum (Δw) decreased gradually as water core increased. Water-cored tissue transmitted much more energy because of the filling of intercellular spaces with liquid, so that the light path time through a sample decreased. These parameters were also strongly dependent on detection position and wavelength of the laser beam. The substantial optical path length calculated from Δt at λ = 800 nm was 10 to 17 times, while that for λ = 900 nm varied from six to 11 times the distance of the diameter of the fruit. Results indicated the optimum optical parameter for detection of water core was Δt.
Xuetong Fan, J.P. Mattheis, M.E. Patterson, and J.K. Fellman
Several strains of Fuji apples were harvested weekly from September through October in 1990 and 1991, and evaluated for maturation and quality after 1 and 7 days at 20 °C following harvest and storage in atmospheres of 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% O2 and air. Results showed that Fuji apples have very low ethylene production rates and little firmness loss during maturation. A change in the postharvest respiration pattern preceded the increase ethylene synthesis. Oxygen concentration during storage directly affected apple respiration rate after removal from storage. Ethylene production rates and internal ethylene concentrations indicated that the apples were still in the preclimacteric stage after 7 to 9 months storage at 0.5%, 1.0%, or 2% O2. Fuji apples develop watercore and tend to have a particular type of corebrowing during maturation on the tree, or during and after storage. The cause is unknown.
J.P. Mattheis, D.A. Buchanan, and J.K. Fellman
Enclosing apple fruit in bags during development is widely practiced in Japan. Bags create a barrier that reduces damage from insects and fungal pathogens as well as treatments to control these problems. Bags also reduce the incidence of sunburn and change fruit appearance by altering peel pigmentation composition, two features that have prompted northwestern United States producers to bag `Fuji' apples. Fruit maturity and quality of bagged and nonbagged Fuji apples grown in Washington state were evaluated at harvest and after refrigerated storage in air or controlled atmosphere. Bagged fruit had less watercore and lower ethylene production at harvest compared to non-bagged fruit with similar starch ratings. Bagged fruit had lower soluble solids content, titratable acidity and firmness at harvest and during storage. Emission of ester and alcohol volatiles was consistently lower for bagged fruit. Postharvest volatile emissions were negatively correlated with bagging duration during development. Bagged fruit had no incidence of a peel disorder with similarity to delayed sunscald.
Warren E. Shafer, Gregory Clarke, Robert Fritts Jr., and Derek Woolard
ReTain™ is an organic, water-soluble formulation that contains 15% (w/w) of aminoethoxy-vinylglycine (AVG). AVG, a naturally occurring plant growth regulator, competitively inhibits ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) synthase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene in plants. ReTain has been under commercial development for the past 6 years, which includes U.S. EPA-approved Experimental Use Permit (EUP) programs in 1995 (Shafer et al., 1996, Proc 23rd Annu. PGRSA Mtg., p. 233–234) and 1996. Under the 1996 EUP, ReTain was tested on nearly 4000 acres of apples in 18 states. When used according to label directions (i.e., 50 g AVG/acre applied 4 weeks before anticipated harvest) with a nonionic surfactant, ReTain effectively reduced preharvest drop and generally resulted in fruit of higher quality than untreated (control) or naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) -treated fruit. ReTain can delay fruit maturity (as indexed by starch conversion) by ≈7 to 10 days. ReTain-treated fruit were typically firmer (by 0.5 to 1.0 lb), produced significantly less ethylene, and maintained notably greater firmness through storage. The incidence and severity of watercore in `Delicious' was significantly reduced by ReTain, as was the frequency of fruit cracking in `Fuji' and `Gala' in several trials. Based on this benefit profile, ReTain can be an effective harvest management tool for apple growers. U.S. EPA approval for the commercial registration of ReTain is anticipated prior to the 1997 use season.