Low hormetic doses of ultraviolet light (UV-C) stress on exposed peaches (Prunus persica). reduced brown rot resulting from field and artificial inoculation from Monilinia fructicola. To test the hypothesis that UV-C induced resistance through host responses the following tests involving biochemical changes (phenlyalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) and ethylene production (EP)), bioassay of antifungal activity of tissue extracts to the fungus, and latent infection of rot free peaches previously treated with and without UV-C were determined. Exposure of peaches to UV-C dose of 7.5×104 ergs/mm2 promoted an increase in PAL and EP compared to the control. As the PAL activity increased, percent storage rots decreased. Antifungal activity to the fungal conidia in UV-C treated peach extract showed that the percent conidia germination was reduced 3 folds. Preharvest infection of brown rot which indicated latent infection was significantly reduced. To test for the germicidal effect of UV-C on M. fructicola on the surface of peaches, an artificial epiphytic population of the fungus was deposited on the peaches. A negative relationship between UV-C dose of 1.3 to 40×104 ergs /mm2, colony forming units and number of decaying brown rot lesions were found.
C. Stevens, P. L. Pusey, V. A. Khan, J. Y. Lu, C. L. Wilson, E. Chalutz, M. K. Kabwe, Z. Haung, O. Adeyeye, and J. Lin
Joan R. Davenport
To examine the impact of N fertilizer rates and timing on cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) yield and the fruit quality factors total anthocyanin, average berry weight, and field and storage rot, plots were established for 3 to 4 years. The cranberries received a total of 0, 22, or 44 kg N/ha over the growing season applied in three, four, or five applications, which varied by growth stage. There were eleven possible treatment combinations in Massachusetts on `Early Black' and `Howes' and in Wisconsin on `Stevens' and `Searles', and seven possible treatments in New Jersey on `Early Black' and in Washington on `McFarlin'. The results showed a nationwide response to N that suggests the experimental middle rate of 22 kg·ha-1 would result in high yields with moderate rot. However, the best timing for applying the fertilizer varied by both state and cultivar, where three late season applications were best on `Early Black' in New Jersey versus four early season applications on the same cultivar in Massachusetts, and applying N fertilizers across five applications was optimal for `Stevens' in Wisconsin.
Russell W. Wallace* and Harold W. Kaufman
Over 5 million acres of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are grown annually on the Texas High Plains, providing important resources to local, state and national economies. In recent years, growers have shown interest in farm diversification in order to increase profits. After determining a market, Agri-Gold, Inc. (Olton, Texas; population 2100) successfully diversified from cotton farming by starting with 30 acres of land and 7 canna lily (Canna ×generalis) varieties, but has now grown to produce 500 acres of cannas, 350 acres of irises (Iris sp.) and 100 acres of daylilies (Hemerocallis sp.). Agri-Gold annually markets 75 varieties of cannas, and over 90 iris and 150 daylily varieties while providing important employment opportunities to 50 full-time personnel and 150 part-time seasonal laborers. Crops are grown and marketed for their reproductive structures (rhizomes, bulbs, and crowns) and sold to retail chains throughout the United States. Warm, dry, sunny days and cool nights provide a quality environment for the reproductive growth of these crops. The arid climate and well-drained soils suppress diseases that may occasionally attack, and there are few natural insects that feed on the roots and foliage. Environmentally friendly products such as composted manure (locally produced) and biologicals, as well as integrated pest management (IPM) strategies are routinely included in field management and production decisions. Recent cooperative research efforts between Agri-Gold and Texas Cooperative Extension have evaluated herbicides for control of yellow (Cyperus esculentus L.) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.), as well as biological treatments for improved root growth and control of winter storage rots.
Rick D. Peters, Tharcisse Barasubiye, and Joanne Driscoll
in Prince Edward Island, and likely only the second observation of its occurrence in North America, after a brief reference to surface rot, presumably incited by F. avenaceum , of swede turnips in Nova Scotia in 1961 ( Creelman, 1962 ). Storage rot
Katherine Bennett, Jared Jent, Uttara C. Samarakoon, Guido Schnabel, and James E. Faust
leaves ( Samarakoon et al., 2017a ). In grapes, preharvest Ca spray applications significantly reduced storage rot from B. cinerea ( Nigro et al., 2006 ). Postharvest dips or vacuum infiltration of Ca on apples increased Ca content of apples and reduced
Carrie H. Wohleb and Timothy D. Waters
sprout in storage. Cultivars that are less susceptible to storage rots are also desired. Commercial onion growers have different needs depending on how the crop will be used. For instance, growers that supply onions for processing into onion rings prefer
G. Craig Yencho, Kenneth V. Pecota, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Zvezdana-Pesic VanEsbroeck, Gerald J. Holmes, Billy E. Little, Allan C. Thornton, and Van-Den Truong
was applied as a split application 10 and 28 DAP rather than as a single application. Storage Roots of ‘Covington’ store well without excessive weight loss from storage rots or dehydration. In controlled storage environments (relative humidity
Don R. La Bonte, Christopher A. Clark, Tara P. Smith, Arthur Q. Villordon, and C. Scott Stoddard
predominantly in California. However, marketable yield in long-term stored product is improved over ‘Diane’ as occurrence of storage rot is less, and color (skin and flesh) decline is more gradual. In California, 4-month storage loss was 7.7% and 12.6% for
Parama Sikdar, Mike Willett, and Mark Mazzola
; Xiao and Kim, 2008 ). Our current studies conducted in commercial orchards indicate that the total percentage of storage rot caused by these two pathogens could be as high as 14% in the absence of postharvest fungicide application or the pruning of
Ibrahim I. Tahir and Hilde Nybom
investigated both at harvest and after storage when the fruit were also screened for physiological disorders and storage rots (see subsequently). Post-harvest practices: three experiments (2, 3, and 4) The second part of the orchard included 15 trees of each of