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not readily available, seedlings could be screened and then selected for stock plant production. However, seeds of many Penstemon species possess a dormancy that limits seed germination. As a result, individual germination requirements vary widely

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of the elegant flowers and straight tree trunk. Seed germination and seedling establishment occupied an important position in the whole life history of plant, which is the interaction result caused by the internal and external factors ( Wang, 2006

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testing biochar or other forms of PCM in seed propagation or plant establishment substrates has focused on ecological or field agricultural applications, as opposed to soilless substrate culture in containers. Seed germination studies with potato ( Solanum

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and suitable measures should be developed to enhance seed germination in saline soils and facilitate plant establishment. Seed priming is considered a critical and vital technique for enhancing stress tolerance through pretreatment with stimulating

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Elballa, 1994 ; Corbineau et al., 1994 ; Nascimento and Pereira, 2007 ; Pereira et al., 2007 ; Vieira et al., 2005 ). However, high temperatures (35 to 40 °C) may also delay or inhibit carrot seed germination in the field and reduce uniformity and

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(time after harvest of berries not reported). The study also included a 28 °C day/13 °C night temperature treatment with a 14-h photoperiod resulting in 21% germination, but detailed information about the process of germination (i.e., how seeds germinate

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. Studies found a substantial reduction in buffalograss seed germination and seedling growth at 50 mM NaCl ( Reid et al., 1993 ; Wu and Lin, 1993 , 1994 ). Marcum (1999) and Marcum and Kopec (1997) assessed relative salt tolerance of eight species in

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proliferation and survival rates. The propagation by seed in the nature is hampered by the limited nutrients present in minute and dust-like seeds. With the advancement of tissue-culture technology, asymbiotic seed germination is now commonly used to ensure its

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Seed germination and initial seedling growth are two important phases in classical plant breeding programs based on crosses between existing cultivars such as in olive species ( Olea europaea L.). Olive seed germination is slow, long-lasting (even

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carrot ( Rosenfeld, 2004 ). High temperature causes heat stress and is considered to be one of the major abiotic factors that limits carrot production because of its adverse effects on seed germination, seedling emergence, and plant growth ( Landjeva et

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