identify factors affecting seed germination in I. latifolia and I. rotunda . We investigated the germination capacity of seeds and embryos of those species from fruits collected in different months. We also investigated the effect of the endosperm, testa
The genetic relationship between cold tolerance (CT) during seed germination and vegetative growth in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was determined. An F2 population of a cross between accession PI120256 (cold tolerant during both seed germination and vegetative growth) and UCT5 (cold sensitive during both stages) was evaluated for germination under cold stress and the most cold tolerant progeny (the first 5% germinated) were selected. Selected progeny were grown to maturity and self-fertilized to produce F3 families (referred to as the selected F3 population). The selected F3 population was evaluated for CT separately during seed germination and vegetative growth and its performance was compared with that of a nonselected F3 population of the same cross. Results indicated that selection for CT during seed germination significantly improved CT of the progeny during germination; a realized heritability of 0.75 was obtained for CT during seed germination. However, selection for CT during germination did not affect plant CT during vegetative growth; there was no significant difference between the selected and nonselected F3 populations in either absolute CT [defined as shoot fresh weight (FW) under cold stress] or relative CT (defined as shoot FW under cold as a percentage of control). Results indicated that, in PI120256, CT during seed germination was genetically independent of CT during vegetative growth. Thus, to develop tomato cultivars with improved CT during different developmental stages, selection protocols that include all critical stages are necessary.
Seed germination is a critical step to achieve economic success in a transplant operation. Total germination of a seed lot dictates total plant sales by the producer, while uniformity of germination dictates the quality of the transplant crop. Using high vigor seed will help to achieve uniform stands, as well as maximize stands, in the transplant house or field. In order to maintain the highest seed quality, transplant producers should store unused seeds at recommended temperature and relative humidity for the crop species. Methods to promote uniformity and optimum stands under a wide range of conditions include the use of seed priming, film coating with fungicides, and pelleting for ease of planting.
commercially available in Chile, Japan, Holland, the United States, and others ( Olate and Schiappacasse, 2013 ). The understanding of seed germination, growth, and development is important for breeding purposes and sexual propagation of these species as an
on seed germination of this species and of Calandrinia sp. B. australis flowers naturally in spring to early summer from September to December, producing blue inflorescences on long slender stalks ( Carolin, 1992 ; Stanley and Ross, 1986 ). This
For premium quality transplant production, it is critical to provide balanced and complete nutrition before and after seed germination. In organic production systems, nutrient management is complex and variable, unlike in inorganic production
of the elegant flowers and straight tree trunk. Seed germination and seedling establishment occupied an important position in the whole life history of plant, which is the interaction result caused by the internal and external factors ( Wang, 2006
not readily available, seedlings could be screened and then selected for stock plant production. However, seeds of many Penstemon species possess a dormancy that limits seed germination. As a result, individual germination requirements vary widely
seeds are light-induced seeds with physiologic dormancy, and their dormancy can be broken by gibberellic acid (GA 3 ), cold stratification, and dry storage ( Liu et al., 2017 ). We have tested the seed germination of three species of Paulownia [empress
seeding is generally poor unless special techniques, such as hydromulch, are used ( McDavid, 2012 ). Seed germination requires an optimal range of environmental conditions, primarily concerning temperature and water availability, for germination