represented 12.1% ± 3.9%, the tuberous roots 6.3% ± 2.1%, and the fine roots only 3.9% ± 0.8% ( Fig. 21 ). Histological and histochemical study. Young roots have a small diameter; the parenchymatous cortex is limited to five or six concentric cambia
Wahiba Boutebtoub, Michel Chevalier, Jean-Claude Mauget, Monique Sigogne, Philippe Morel, and Gilles Galopin
Jack Olson and Matthew Clark
intensity affects the expression of variegation, and 5) compare growth performance between variegated and WT plants under different light intensities. Materials and Methods Histology of variegated and WT leaf tissue sectors. Small pieces of
Jennifer A. Ehrenberger* and Adelheid R. Kuehnle
A hybridization strategy for certain coloration could be developed based on accurate histological information of parental material together with the knowledge of heritability of color and color intensity. A sample of 12 Anthurium species and hybrids were histologically examined for pigmentation in spathes using a new method employing vacuum infiltration of spathe tissue with polyethylene glycol (PEG) prior to cross-sectioning. PEG infiltration displaces intercellular air spaces between cells. This method greatly improved the clarity of the cross sections and consequently improved observations of spatial localization of anthocyanins and chloroplasts. This infiltration method accurately identified the spatial localization of pigments for future breeding reference, notably among Anthurium species.
Tracie K. Matsumoto, David T. Webb, and Adelheid R. Kuehnle
Histological analysis of somatic embryos derived from in vitro-grown lamina of Anthurium andraeanumshowed bipolarity with the presence of shoot and root poles connected by procambium. Vascular connections between the explant and somatic embryos were not observed. Storage of proteins, starch and raphides as well as a suspensor-like structure and an epidermis were observed in the somatic embryos. Origin of the somatic embryos was from a proembryonic cell complex or possibly from a single cell by direct embryogenesis. Both modes of somatic embryogenesis arose from the mesophyll.
Larry S. Kennedy, Carl E. Sams, and Effin T. Graham
Broccoli (Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica cv. `Premium Crop') plants grown in perlite were supplied with nutrient solutions containing three levels of added boron (0.04 (severely deficient), 0.08 (moderately deficient) or 0.80 (normal) mg L-1). These treatments produced plants exhibiting either obvious (0.04 mg L-1) or no visual boron deficiency symptoms (0.08 and 0.80 mg L-1). At horticultural maturity, cross sections were taken in the upper and mid stem regions. The specimens were mounted on slides after being processed through a biological staining series. Boron availability was found to be correlated with the progressive internal deterioration of the stem which was observed histologically. An examination of staining patterns indicated that possibly a lignification process accompanies and contributes to hollow stem development. We have previously noted an increase in phenolic compounds and fiber content of broccoli produced under boron deficient conditions. The histological evidence of lignification further substantiates that boron deficiency induces changes in cell wall structure which may contribute to the development of hollow stem.
Tracy A.O. Dougher and Bruce Bugbee
Blue light (320 to 496 nm) alters hypocotyl and stem elongation and leaf expansion in short-term, cell-level experiments, but histological effects of blue light in long-term studies of whole plants have not been described. We measured cell size and number in stems of soybean (Glycine max L.) and leaves of soybean and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), at two blue light fractions. Short-term studies have shown that cell expansion in stems is rapidly inhibited when etiolated tissue is exposed to blue light. However, under long-term light exposure, an increase in the blue light fraction from <0.1% to 26% decreased internode length, specifically by inhibiting soybean cell division in stems. In contrast, an increase in blue light fraction from 6% to 26% reduced soybean leaf area by decreasing cell expansion. Surprisingly, lettuce leaf area increased with increasing blue light fraction (0% to 6%), which was attributed to a 3.1-fold increase in cell expansion and a 1.6-fold increase in cell division.
Brian K. Maynard and Nina L. Bassuk
New shoot growth of Carpinus betulus L. fastigiata was subjected to stock plant etiolation and stem banding (a 2.5-cm square of Velcro applied to the shoot base) treatments and sampled for histological study at intervals over a 16-week period of shoot development following etiolation. Effects of partial shading on histology of the stem were also investigated. Numerous histological changes were noted with stem development and stock plant treatment. Among these were a reduction in lignification of the secondary xylem and thickness of the periderm, and an increase in the percentage of sclereid-free gaps in the perivascular sclerenchyma with etiolation. Concomitant propagation studies revealed significant etiolation, shading, and banding effects on rooting percentages and root numbers. Rooting capacity was modelled using linear combinations of the widths of nonlignified secondary xylem, cortical parenchyma and periderm, as well as the percentage of gaps in the sclerenchymatic sheath remaining free of sclereids. It is proposed that the development of sclereids in potential rooting sites reduces rooting potential. The exclusion of light during initial shoot development retards sclereid development by up to 3 months following treatment, which correlates well with observed increases in the rooting potential of etiolated stems.
Y.H. Huang, G.A. Lang, C.E. Johnson, and M.D. Sundberg
Five-year old `Sharpblue' southern highbush blueberry plants (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were self- and cross-pollinated (`O'Neal') to study peroxidase (POD) activity, isozyme patterns, and histological localization during fruit development. Cross-pollination resulted in larger and earlier-ripening fruit. Activities of soluble and bound POD were very high during fruit growth period I, with peaks at 10 and 20 days after self- and cross-pollination. Activity was much higher for cross-pollinated fruit. During fruit growth period II, POD activities were low in both pollination treatments. During ripening, soluble POD increased, then declined in both treatments. Bound POD activities increased during the color transition from blue to dark blue, with the increase greater in self-pollinated fruit. Banding patterns of soluble and bound POD isozymes and their histological localization varied by pollination treatment as well as fruit developmental stage. During fruit ripening, soluble POD activity appeared to be associated with color transition from light blue to blue, while bound POD activity appeared to be associated with color transition from blue to dark blue.
Kendra M. Blaker and James W. Olmstead
findings suggest that crisp texture is likely associated with differences in or near the epidermal layer of the berry. The objective of this study was to perform a histological analysis of cell type, area, and structure of the outermost cell layers of
Ernesto A. Brovelli, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Wayne B. Sherman, and Charles A. Sims
A study to compare the response to postharvest chilling (4 °C) for up to 3 weeks of melting-flesh (MF)—FL 90-20, FL 90-21W, and FL 91-16—and nonmelting-flesh (NMF)—`Oro A', FL 90-35C, and FL 90-47C—peach (Prunus persica L.) genotypes revealed that MF fruit were notably more susceptible to the development of mealiness than NMF types. Cell separation in mealy fruit was demonstrated by the release of mesocarp cells to an aqueous medium, allowing determination of mealiness severity. At a histological level, chilling brought about an impressive expansion of the intercellular spaces in MF mesocarp tissue but did not affect NMF fruit. A decrease in flesh electrical resistance after 1 week of chilling was observed only in MF fruit. However, electrical resistance increased in MF and NMF fruit following 2 and 3 weeks at 4 °C. Electrical resistance also decreased with ripening of MF fruit but did not change when NMF fruit were ripened. Unlike NMF fruit, the MF genotypes FL 90-21W and FL 91-16 showed an increase in respiration rate due to chilling. The rate of ethylene production decreased after 1 week at 4 °C in MF and NMF genotypes. However, two MF and two NMF genotypes exhibited rising ethylene levels after the second week of storage at 4 °C, while ethylene production in one MF and one NMF genotype continued to decline.