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Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) is influenced by some abiotic stresses that have a major impact on fruit quality and yield. Heat stress impacts the crop in several ways, including disruption of pollen development and viability, fertilization

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-season and warm-season grass species, particularly for cool-season grasses. Heat stress injury is associated with photosynthesis inhibition and various other physiological changes such as limited water and nutrient uptake and hormone synthesis ( DiPaola and

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The photosystem II reaction center is the most sensitive reaction center in photosynthesis to heat stress ( Wen et al., 2005 ). Heat stress decreases photosynthetic electron transport activity and variable fluorescence and maximum fluorescence (Fv

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negative effects are exacerbated in semi-arid and tropical areas. Of particular interest are the effects induced by short occurrences of extremely high temperatures, which are also known as heat stress (HS) events ( Teixeira et al., 2013 ). Peaks of high

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survival of plants ( Berry and Bjorkman, 1980 ; Seemann et al., 1984 ). Heat stress can cause morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes that reduce photosynthetic efficiency, plant growth, and productivity ( Ashraf and Harris, 2013 ). Leaves

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( Streitweiser and Heathcock, 1976 ). Alleviating heat-induced leaf senescence is critical in maintaining high visual quality of cool-season species during periods of high temperatures. Abiotic stresses, including heat stress, cause the production of reactive

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on the effect of fungal endophyte infection on the responses of the host grass to sustained heat stress conditions in any species. In addition, little is known of endophyte effects on the combination of drought and heat stress, which often occurs

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vitamin A. It is an important cool-season crop that demonstrates optimum growth and sustainable production under low-temperature regimes i.e., 18 to 22 °C ( Rubatzky et al., 1999 ). Heat stress is the most adverse abiotic constraint that significantly

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Heat stress is detrimental to plant growth and productivity in most plants, especially in cool-season species. Plant adaptation to heat stress involves profound changes in metabolic, physiological, and molecular processes ( Wahid et al., 2007

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The effect of high temperature on abscission of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) flowers and pods was studied under growth chamber and greenhouse conditions. Experiments investigated stages at which flowers are sensitive to heat stress, the period when reproductive structures abscise, and sensitivity of male and female flower parts to heat stress. Heat treatments (2 days at 35C, 10 hours per day) were applied through flower ontogeny, from 8 days before anthesis until anthesis. The flower bud stages were defined by correlating the pedicel length with days to reach anthesis. The prefertilization period showing highest sensitivity to heat stress extended from ≈ 6 days before anthesis to anthesis. We found that 82% of heat-stressed structures abscised as small pods (< 2 cm in length), even when the stress was applied at various flower bud stages. Reciprocal crosses made with pollen from heated plants or on heat-treated flowers indicated that pollen was more affected by heat stress than by female structures.

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