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Abstract

Postclimacteric respiration of apples (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Baldwin) decreased as peel Ca level increased from 400 to 1300 ppm. The respiratory climacteric occurred simultaneously in fruit of all Ca levels, indicating that maturation was unaffected by these Ca levels. Occurrence of bitter pit was inversely related to Ca levels. Scald, internal breakdown, and decay were more prevalent when peel Ca was below 700 ppm. Fruits were firmer after 5 months storage in 0°C air if Ca was below 700 ppm, although they were larger, yellower, and more susceptible to decay and other disorders than higher Ca fruit.

Open Access

Abstract

Incorporating high Ca lime with the soil in the planting hole for trees of ‘Sturdeespur Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) on Malling-Merton 106 rootstock increased leaf Ca for the first 2 years. Annual soil applications of NH4NO3 for 8 years, in comparison to applications of KNO3or Ca (NO3)2, increased acidity of soil to depths of 50 to 61 cm. Soil Ca levels were reduced by NH4NO3 but were not increased by Ca (NO3)2. The trees were fertilized either 1 month prior to bloom or at bloom. Time of application or N source had no appreciable influence on tree growth, leaf nutrition, yield, fruit Ca levels, bitter pit and cork spot, or internal breakdown after storage.

Open Access

Abstract

Growth of ‘Topred Delicious’ (Malus domestica Borkh)/Malling Merton (MM) 111 apple trees during the first 5 years in the orchard was significantly affected by the orchard floor management system. Trees grown in a mowed sod were smaller and had a significantly lower yield efficiency (kg/cm2) than those grown under cultivation or a herbicide strip system. N source or rate did not influence growth or average yield/tree; fruit size and bitter pit development were significantly greater where a complete fertilizer (10N-4P-8K) was applied. N increased tree growth under sod but not under a cultivated or herbicide strip managment system. Growth response in the first year was increased when larger-sized trees were planted under a weed-free management system and trees were headed to 76 cm.

Open Access
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Abstract

Irrigation and evaporative cooling of ‘Red Delicious’ apple trees over 2 growing seasons resulted in a reduction in environmental stress as evidenced by plant and air temp reductions (8). The trees were spot-picked weekly, based on acceptable color to meet grade standards. Harvesting was completed one week earlier on trees receiving overtree sprinkler irrigation as compared to those with undertree or no irrigation. Fruit from trees which received overtree irrigation had greater surface coloration and nearly twice as much surface area with good solid red color as fruit which received undertree or no irrigation. Overtree irrigation improved fruit size and shape during 1969 but not 1970; increased soluble solids, and reduced cork spot and bitter pit in 1970. Lower firmness of overtree irrigated apples in 1969 was attributed to their greater size. Irrigation (over and undertree) had no influence upon internal breakdown measured after 4 months of storage at 32°F.

Open Access
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Abstract

The response of ‘Red Delicious’ apples to low volume overtree evaporative cooling (EC) irrigation was studied over a 4-year period from 1969-72. While the amount of thermal load and irrigation system run-time varied from year to year, EC consistently resulted in fruit temperature reductions averaging 5.6°C (10.1°F) for the entire 509 hr the system operated over the 4-year period. In each of the 4 years, EC improved fruit quality; on the average increasing total reddish color 8%, solid red color 13%, soluble solids 1%, and fruit weight 22-g while reducing corking 8% and bitter pit 7%. The additional fruit coloration stimulated by EC concentrated harvest in the earlier portion of the harvest season. During the 4 years of the experiment, an additional 1/3 of the cooled crop was harvested, with sufficient solid red color to meet “extra fancy” U.S. grade, during the 1st 2 weeks of the seasons. Because of higher early-season prices, the concentrated earlier harvest of EC fruit is of considerable economic benefit. In locations where heat stresses are common, the use of EC and soil irrigation should be economically feasible.

Open Access

, then stored at –80 °C. Four samples, in biological triplicate (a total of 12 observations—where each replicate was a pool of tissues from 10 fruits) represent peel and cortical tissues each from fruit with and without bitter pit lesions. RNA was

Free access

Abstract

Anatomical changes in ‘York Imperial’ apples were studied sequentially throughout the growing season to discover tissue variances occurring within the fruit at different stages of development. Several abnormalities have occurred during fruit enlargement, some of which may develop into corking disorders, including bitter pit and cork spot. Cellular abnormalities appeared contiguous to large lacunae, senescing vascular bundles or in tissues where cell proliferation was apparent.

Abnormalities adjacent to necrotic vascular bundles in the outer cortical region were apparent early in. the life of the fruit, by 14 days after full bloom. Changes in cellular structure continued 65 days after full bloom from the outer cortex to the epidermis, and extended to the bundles underlying this area. Cell division had ceased, and the cell walls were thick with a distinct demarkation line between the affected and unaffected tissues. Tissues of the basin region were susceptible to the development of corking disorders, while senescent vascular bundles and meristematic tissues were evident within the core line.

Necrosis of vascular bundles extended along the core line in the fruit apex 95 days after full bloom, and tissue proliferation occurred by 115 days. Fruit development 126 days after full bloom revealed large lacunae in the outer cortex and extreme cell proliferation resembling callus tissue in the cavity at the point of fruit-pedicel attachment.

Origin of corking disorders, visible on fruit nearing maturation (112 days after full bloom), could be traced from tissue anomalies in the outer cortex. The spots appeared irregular in outline, yellowish-green in color; while a glossy, scalded appearance surrounded this area. Meristematic activity of the parenchyma cells along the core line was apparent 126 days after full bloom.

Open Access

10.1104/pp.110.4.1207 Neilsen, G. Neilsen, D. Dong, S. Toivonen, P. Peryea, F. 2005 Application of CaCl 2 sprays earlier in the season may reduce bitter pit incidence in ‘Braeburn’ apple HortScience 40 1850 1853 10.21273/HORTSCI.40.6.1850 Noiraud, N

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Author:

, C.V.T. Steffens, A. Santos, A. Mitcham, E. 2014 Relationship between xylem functionality, calcium content and the incidence of bitter pit in apple fruit Sci. Hort. 165 319 323 Mullendore, D.L. Windt, C.W. As, H.V. Knoblauch, M. 2010 Sieve tube

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