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Jayesh B. Samtani, Celeste Gilbert, J. Ben Weber, Krishna V. Subbarao, Rachael E. Goodhue and Steven A. Fennimore

pathogens such as Verticillium dahliae , Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia spp., and Phytophthora spp., root-knot ( Meloidogyne spp.) and sting nematodes ( Belonolaimus spp.), and weeds such as nutsedge ( Cyperus spp.) and winter annuals ( USEPA, 2009a

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Stefania De Pascale, Luisa Dalla Costa, Simona Vallone, Giancarlo Barbieri and Albino Maggio

the production of vegetable crops is well established. Plastic mulches are used to increase soil temperature, control weeds, and consequently improve crop yields. Plastic mulches reduce nutrient leaching, and stabilize soil moisture ( Zajicek and

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Christopher D. Ryan, J. Bryan Unruh, Kevin E. Kenworthy, Alexa J. Lamm, John E. Erickson and Laurie E. Trenholm

forces. For example, many municipalities have ordinances specifying irrigation restrictions, prohibition of nuisance weeds, or grass height limits, although these ordinances are usually enforced only by neighbor complaint ( Sisser et al., 2016

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Bakir A. Al-Juboory

This experiment was conducted to determine effects of herbicides on the control of noxious perennial grass weeds. The results indicate that the rate, timing, duration and number of applications employed were the major factors in the successful control of perennial grass weeds such as Cogon Grass (Imperala cylindrica), Johnson Grass (Sorghum halepense), Bermuda Grass (Cynodon dactylon), Nut Grass (Cyperus rotundus) and Common Red (Phragmites spp.), commonly found in Iraq growing both in cultivated fields and wild on uncultivated land.

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Kandy L. Walker and David J. Williams

Experiments in two consecutive years indicated that barnyardgrass (Echirzochloa crusgalli L.), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), and giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) reduced growth of container-grown `San Jose' juniper (Juniperus chinensis L. `San Jose') 83 days after transplanting grass seedlings into the containers. Grass densities of one to six weeds per container reduced `San Jose' juniper growth. By 83 days of grass interference, juniper shoot dry weight was reduced as much as 43% by six weeds per container.

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Charles L. Webber and James W. Shrefler

Producers and researchers are interested in pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid) as a broad-spectrum postemergence or burn-down herbicide. Pelargonic acid is a fatty acid naturally occurring in many plants and animals, and present in many foods we consume. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of pelargonic acid concentration, adjuvants, and application timing on weed control efficacy as a burn-down herbicide. Field research was conducted at Lane, Okla. (southeast Oklahoma), during the 2005 growing season. One month prior to spraying the weed control treatments, the land was cultivated to kill the existing weeds and provide a uniform seed bed for new weed growth. The factorial weed control treatments included three application concentrations of Scythe (57.0% pelargonic acid) applied at 3%, 6.5%, and 10%; three adjuvants (none, orange oil, and non-ionic surfactant); and two application dates. All herbicide treatments were applied with an application volume of 935 L/ha to seedling weeds. The experiment had a high weed density with multiple species of grass and broadleaf weeds. Weed control across species increased as the herbicide concentrations increased from 0% to 10%. At all concentrations applied, pelargonic acid produced greater weed control for a longer time period for the broadleaf weeds than the grass weeds. Visual damage to the weeds was often apparent within a few hours after application. There was a significant increase in weed control when applied to the younger weeds. In this research, pelargonic acid was effective in controlling both broadleaf and grass weeds as a burn-down herbicide, although crabgrass was tougher to control.

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Te-Ming Tseng, Swati Shrestha, James D. McCurdy, Erin Wilson and Gourav Sharma

Herbicide resistance is a global problem and annual bluegrass is reported to have the greatest resistance issues of weeds in turfgrass systems. The Reunion biotype collected from the Reunion Golf and Country Club in Madison, MS, in 2014 was suspected of

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M. Lenny Wells, Eric P. Prostko and O. Wendell Carter

genetically modified crops, including cotton, field corn, soybean, and canola with resistance to dicamba and 2,4-D herbicides has been developed to address the problem of glyphosate-resistant weeds ( Behrens et al., 2007 ; Wright et al., 2010 ). In the few

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John E. Beck, Michelle S. Schroeder-Moreno, Gina E. Fernandez, Julie M. Grossman and Nancy G. Creamer

. Pairwise mean comparisons were performed on all significant effects using Tukey’s honest significant difference test at P ≤ 0.05. Analysis of data taken outside of strawberry season (cover crop biomass, weeds, and soil variables) did not include

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Dana Jokela and Ajay Nair

producers, however, typically end cover crops mechanically—using a tool such as a roller-crimper or flail mower—and have few options for chemical control of weeds that come up through the cover crop mulch. Weed management through rolled cover crops has long