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Meiling Yang, Fang Li, Hong Long, Weiwei Yu, Xiuna Yan, Bin Liu, Yunxiu Zhang, Guorong Yan, and Wenqin Song

., 2008 ). The exact pollen germination percentage in different populations of M. sieversii remains unclear. Seed germination is another major aspect for plant reproduction. Relieving seed dormancy successfully is critical for fruit breeding. Evidence

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Jacob S. Bravo, Thomas Okada Green, James R. Crum, John N. Rogers III, Sasha Kravchenko, and Charles A. Silcox

previous research with dazomet was conducted based on the product’s initial label, which was focused more on production agriculture fields. The goal of current research is to optimize weed seed germination control when dazomet is used as per the current

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Jonas Christensen, Uffe Bjerre Lauridsen, Christian Andreasen, and Henrik Lütken

potential to introduce the species as a crop in agriculture by an organic approach and on other soil types than it normally thrives. We focused on seed germination ability, growth rate, and biomass production at low fertilizer levels. Most vegetable crops

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Melike Cirak and James R. Myers

of seed germination without fungicide treatment for green ( p pc ), white ( p Pc ) and colored-seeded ( P Pc ) snap bean genotypes grown at the Oregon State University Vegetable Research Farm, Corvallis, OR, in 2018. p , plant parts not pigmented

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Shawn A. Mehlenbacher and Anna M. Voordeckers

The relationship between dormancy of seeds and buds of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) might provide breeders with an early opportunity to select for delayed development. Seeds of late-flowering genotypes require much longer exposure to chilling temperatures than those of early flowering” genotypes, and they germinate over a much longer period. In three progenies that exhibit much variation for the two traits, seed germination time was correlated with time of leafing-out of the resulting seedlings, and could be used to select for delayed budbreak. However, selection would be ineffective when little genetic variation for seed germination and budbreak is present. Leafing-out ratings in the nursery in the 2nd year were highly correlated with those in the 3rd year, indicating that selection for late leafing in the nursery during the 2nd year would be more effective than selection based on seed dormancy, especially in progenies exhibiting little genetic variability for this trait. Breeders can effectively use both relationships by first eliminating early germinating seeds and then eliminating early leafing seedlings.

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Edward Bush, Paul Wilson, and Gloria McClure

A study to determine the influence of light duration on seed germination was performed in a temperature-controlled growth chamber. Light treatments consisted of 0 (control), 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 h of light exposure. Cool fluorescent light bulbs provided 19 μMol·m-2·s-1 light. Fifty seeds of each treatment were placed into separately labeled 6.0-cm-diameter petri dishes lined with Whatman #42 filter papers moistened with 2 mL of distilled water. Seed of both species germinated poorly in the control treatment. Mean time of germination (MTG) and germination percentage increased for both species when seeds were exposed to light. Pre-soaking seed in gibberellic acid (GA) significantly improved germination percentages of both species compared to the untreated control. Centipedegrass germination percentage and MTG also increased with light exposure. Carpetgrass seed germination was not enhanced by GA treatments with light exposure. The results of this experiment suggests that, if seed are covered too deeply, excluding light, MTG and percentage germination will be reduced. However, pre-soaking seed in a GA solution can improve dark germination by as much as 50% for both grass species.

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Fredy R. Romero, Kathleen Delate, and David J. Hannapel

Organic production of one of the most popular botanical supplements, Echinacea, continues to expand in the U.S. Echinacea seeds typically show a high degree of dormancy that can be broken by ethephon or gibberellic acid (GA), but these methods are currently disallowed in organic production. In order to determine the efficacy of nonchemical seed treatments, we evaluated the effect of varying seed source and supplying light, with and without cold-moist stratification, on seed germination of the three most important medicinal species of Echinacea, E. angustifolia DC, E. purpurea (L) Moench, and E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. Treatments included cold-moist stratification under 24 hours of light, 24 hours of dark, and 16/8 hours of light/dark to break seed dormancy. We found that germination was greater in the E. purpurea and E. pallida seeds from a commercial organic seed source compared to a public germplasm source. When seeds were not cold-moist stratified, 16 to 24 hours light increased germination in E. angustifolia only. Echinacea angustifolia, E. purpurea, and E. pallida seeds that were cold-moist stratified under 16 to 24 hours of light for 4 weeks had a significantly greater percentage and rate of germination compared to seeds germinated in the dark. Therefore, cold-moist stratification under light conditions is recommended as a method to break seed dormancy and increase germination rates in organic production of Echinacea.

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Carlos Crisosto and Ellen G. Sutter


‘Manzanillo’ olive (Olea europaea L.) seeds were subjected to chemical scarification with NaOH and H2SO4 for various periods of time to determine the most appropriate treatment for improving the germination of the seeds. A critical balance of concentration and time was necessary to achieve high germination percentages without loss of viability of the seeds. H2SO4 was more effective than NaOH in increasing germination percentages. Germination percentages as high as 98% were obtained on stratified seed using H2SO4, compared to 0% without chemical scarification.

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Gbolahan A. Ashiru


The effects of kinetin—(6-furfuryl-amino-purine), thiourea, thiourea dioxide, light and heat on germination of kola seeds were studied. The effect of chemicals on the germination of kola seeds was found to be highly significant. High temperatures and light seem to have no direct effect on germination. Seedlings from both fresh and stored kola seeds were normal at growth but the subsequent growth was enhanced in seedlings from stored kola seeds. None of the chemicals appear to have completely substituted for the postharvest requirement of fresh kola seeds. Germination of kola seeds by this method would considerably reduce the time required for producing seedlings for planting and grafting and would provide a higher percentage of uniform seedlings.

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Alireza Talaie* and Rasoul Akrami

The objective of this study was the identification of existing olive trees in eight regions of Kermanshah province and investigation of their fruit, seed, and leaf characteristics in order to be used in the olive production industry of Iran. The germination ability of olive seed in field and nursery were also studied. In this research, 61 genotypes were identified and their characteristics were studied. It was found out that the present genotypes of Kermanshah showed different vegetative and reproductive growth based on the climatic and topographic conditions. This was verified by cluster analysis of the genotypes of different regions, which showed clearly their far and close relations. It was found out that some of the genotypes in the region spite of their appearance differences have same origin and most probably should be considered as the same genotype. The results also showed that favorable seed bed, planting depth and scarification of the seeds have positive effects on their germination while scarification of the seeds without other treatments had no significant effect on the seed germination.