Permanent chlorosis of leaves on plants fertilized with urea containing high levels of the contaminant biuret has been observed in several crops including citrus. Little has been reported as to the cellular changes that result from such chlorosis. Branches from `Ruby Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyn) and `Hamlin' orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] were sprayed with urea solutions containing 1.05% biuret. As visible symptoms developed, leaf tissue samples were prepared for transmission electron microscopy. For comparison purposes, leaves from similar trees showing chlorosis from age-related senescence and Zn deficiency were also sampled. The progressive development of chlorosis in biuret-affected leaves was characterized by: the loss of starch, thylakoidal and granal membranes in chloroplasts along with the enlargement and increase in number of plastoglobuli or lipid bodies. The lipid bodies were liberated alone or in association with membrane vesicles to the cytoplasm and vacuoles. The number and volume of the individual chloroplasts became smaller. Concurrent loss of cytoplasmic content and the enlargement of the vacuolar space were also observed in the biuret affected leaf tissue. Similar findings were observed in the cells of senescent leaves. In cells of leaves showing nutritional deficiency, losses in cytoplasmic content and vacuolar enlargement were observed but there was neither complete loss of thylakoidal or granal membranes nor the release of lipids from the plastids. It was concluded that 1) the cytological characteristics of the biuret-affected samples were more similar to age-related senescent samples than to chlorosis from Zn deficiency and 2) that complete loss of the lipid bodies from the chromoplasts to the cytoplasm and vacuole in the biuret-affected samples and in age-related senescence in citrus leaves was responsible for the permanent nature of the chlorosis.
D.S. Achor and L.G. Albrigo
Lisa O’Rear Knowles and J. A. Flore
Soluble lipids from periderm of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. ‘Danvers’) were not decreased significantly by foliar sprays of linuron, chlorpropham, ethofumesate, or Stoddard oil applied to field plots. Ethofumesate treatments to ‘Scarlet Nantes’ grown in the greenhouse produced significant reductions in isolated periderm weight per unit area. This decrease occurred both in the chloroform/methanol-soluble and insoluble fractions. The diffusion resistance of treated roots was lower significantly than controls.
G.A. Picchioni, A.E. Watada, W.S. Conway, B.D. Whitaker, and C.E. Sams
Postharvest CaCl2 pressure infiltration improves firmness and storage quality of apples but is still in the experimental stages. Its effectiveness could be increased if we had a better understanding of how Ca affects the tissue at the cellular level. `Golden Delicious' fruit were harvested from a commercial orchard and were pressure-infiltrated with CaCl2 (0%, 2%, or 4% w/v), stored for 6 months at 0C, and then for 7 days at 20C. Between harvest and the end of storage at 20C, the net breakdown of galactolipids and phospholipids decreased with increasing CaCl2 in infiltration solutions. During 0C storage, CaCl2-infiltrated fruit maintained greater concentrations of conjugated sterol lipids, and these lipid classes are thought to be closely associated with the plasma membrane. As membrane lipid alterations are viewed as a central factor in the senescence of fruits, Ca (from postharvest infiltration) may serve a major role in regulating fruit quality losses through its interactions with cell membranes.
Four topics are presented on the status of water in seeds; 1) methods to express moisture content (MC), 2) methods to determine MC, 3) relationship between relative humidity (RH) and MC, and 4) utility of water activity measurements in seeds. Seed MC is expressed on a fresh-weight basis in commerce and seed technology, while dry weight basis is used in physiological or biophysical literature. Conversion equations are available for the fresh and dry weight measurements. Moisture testing methods are grouped as primary and secondary. Primary methods are direct methods in which the water is removed and determined, while the secondary methods are indirect methods that rely on a chemical or physical characteristic that changes with MC. The oven method is the most common primary technique and the electronic moisture meter is widely used as a nondestructive secondary technique. The relation between RH and MC is known as an isotherm, and three zones of water binding are observed. The RH and the seed composition, in particular the lipid content, determines the MC. Seeds with low lipid content have a greater equilibrium MC than seeds with high lipid content. Water activity, defined as the ratio of water vapor of the seed over the water vapor of pure water at a particular temperature, is related to water potential in a log-linear relationship. Water activity (aw) can be used to define the water status of any species, regardless of composition.
Ravindranath V. Kanamangala, Neils O. Maness, Michael W. Smith, Gerald H. Brusewitz, and Sue Knight
Shelf life is a major problem in the marketing of pecans, particularly at the retail level. A procedure to extend the shelf life of pecans was described. The full-oil and supercritical carbon dioxide extracted (22% and 27% reduced-oil) native pecan kernels packaged in standard air mixture (21% O2, 79% N2), stored for up to 37 weeks at 25 °C and 55% RH, were subjected to hexanal analysis, sensory analysis, and determination of lipid class changes, that occur as the pecans age. Hexanal concentration of reduced-oil pecans was negligible throughout the storage, while full-oil pecans reached excessive levels by 22 weeks. Hexanal analysis was in agreement with the sensory scores. Free fatty acid lipid class was selectively extracted during the partial oil extraction process. Reduction in free fatty acids, and an overall reduction in lipid content on a per kernel basis, decreased the sites for oxidative deterioration and contributed to enhanced shelf-life of pecans. Work was supported by OCAST grant AR4-044 and the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station.
More than 400 volatile components have been identified in tomato fruit, of which only 10–16 are likely to be important contributors to tomato flavor/aroma based on odor threshold data. Tomato volatiles are grouped as lipid-derived, carotenoid-related, amino acid-related, lignin-related, or of uncertain origin. These flavor components are either present in intact fruit or formed after blending due to mixing of previously compartmentalized enzymes and substrates. Lipid-derived volatiles are the biggest group containing cis-3-hexenal and hexanal, which are quantitatively the major volatile compounds in tomato fruit. cis-3-Hexenal and -ionone have the highest odor thresholds among tomato volatile compounds so far identified. Most of these compounds increase during ripening (or the enzymes, substrates and conditions develop that result in increased levels after blending) and appear to be related to ethylene production. Biosynthetic pathways have been established or suggested for most of the important flavor components, of which lipid degradation is the best-understood. Linoleic and linolenic acids are oxidized to hydroperoxides by lipoxygenase, which are then cleaved to volatile C6 aldehydes (hexanal and cis-3-hexenal, respectively). There are two membrane-associated lipoxygenases (tomloxA and B), of which tomloxB appears to be fruit-specific and increases during ripening. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been demonstrated to catalyze the interconversion of trans-hexene-2-al and -2-ol and of trans-hexene-2-al, hexanal and hexanol. The enzyme product of the Adh2 gene is induced by 3% O2, and is developmentally expressed in fruit aside from anoxic induction. Naturally occurring mutants and genetically engineered tomatoes with reduced ethylene production, color and/or retarded ripening patterns show changes in volatile concentrations.
Yali He, Xiaozhong Liu, and Bingru Huang
Various physiological processes may deteriorate in response to increasing temperatures, contributing to the decline in turf quality for cool-season turfgrasses during heat stress. This study was performed to investigate metabolic changes (membrane lipid peroxidation, total protein content, amino acid content, and protease activity) associated with turf quality decline for creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera Huds.) in response to gradually increasing temperatures for a short duration and prolonged exposure to lethally high temperature. Plants were subjected to increasing temperatures of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 °C for 7 days at each level of temperature [gradual heat stress (GHS)] or exposed to high temperature of 40 °C for 28 days [prolonged heat stress (PHS)] in growth chambers. During the GHS treatment, significant decline in turf quality occurred when plants were exposed to 30 °C for 7 days; simultaneously, malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased and total protein content in shoots decreased significantly compared to those at 20 °C. Protease activity increased at 25 °C and then decreased as temperature was elevated from 30 to 40 °C during the GHS treatment. Amino acid content decreased under GHS, beginning at 25 °C. Under the PHS treatment, turf quality declined and MDA content increased significantly, beginning at 14 days of PHS, while total protein content decreased at 7 days of PHS. Protease activity and amino acid content increased at 7 days of PHS, and then declined with longer stress duration. Our results indicated that protease activity, and amino acid and total protein content were more responsive to GHS or PHS than that of lipid peroxidation and turf quality. Changes in metabolic parameters of protease activity, amino acid and total protein content, and lipid peroxidation may contribute to leaf senescence and poor turf performance under severe or prolonged heat stress conditions for creeping bentgrass.
James Q. Garner Jr. and Thammasak Thongket
Proline content, leaf water potential (LWP), and leaf diffusive resistance (LDR) were determined for eight sweetpotato genotypes underwater stress conditions. Changes in fatty acid compositions of leaf polar lipids were determined in two sweetpotato genotypes during declining soil moisture. Proline did not accumulate and LWP did not decrease until soil moisture dropped below 10%, but LDR increased as soil moisture decreased. Genotypic differences in proline accumulation and LWP were found. Changes in fatty acid compositions occurred more in glycolipids than in phospholipids. Fatty acid changes were more pronouned in genotype MS20-2 than in “Vardaman”
Hong Wang and Robert C. Herner
A study of the ultrastructure of leaf tissues of Chinese mustard shows that there is a progressive degeneration of the membrane structure of the grana of the chloroplast accompanied with the appearance of globules of lipid material and loss of chlorophyll during leaf senescence. A controlled atmosphere of 5% CO2 plus 3% O2 maintained chloroplast grana membrane structure for up to 4 weeks storage at 10°C. Both 5% CO2 (in air) and 5% CO2 plus 3% O2 maintained the highest chlorophyll content compared to 3% O2 alone or in air (control).
David Mason Pharr and Yoshie Motomura
The effect of anaerobiosis, imposed during germination of ‘Calypso’ cucumber (Cucumis sativas L.) seeds, was studied. Anaerobic conditions inhibited reserve mobilization from the cotyledons and dry weight gain by the embryonic axis. Within the embryonic axis, lipid degradation was stopped and use of all readily metabolizable carbohydrate reserves was strongly stimulated. By 48 hr of exposure to an anaerobic environment, the axis was nearly depleted of endogenous carbohydrate reserves. Aerobically germinating seeds accumulated a massive concentration of hexose sugars within the axis during the same time period. Thus, growth inhibition within cucumber seeds during anaerobiosis may result in part from carbohydrate deprivation of the embryonic axis.