A naturally occurring mutant of Chamelaucium uncinatum Schauer (Geraldton wax) is described. It has double flowers with the staminodes transformed into petals. Pollen is exuded from the anthers but is not deposited on the pollen presenter in a lipid droplet, which is normal for the species. An anomalous secondary flower with petals, stamens, and gynoecium is present in the ovary.
Jen A. McComb, Chris Newell, and George Lullfitz
Robert R. Martin
Viruses consist of nucleic acid packaged in a protective shell composed of protein or, in some cases, protein plus lipid. This shell protects the nucleic acid from enzymatic degradation while it is outside the host cell in a potentially hostile environment. Recent advances in virus detection and diagnosis are based on increased sensitivity of methods for the detection of proteins and nucleic acids.
R. B. H. Wills, G. Hopkirk, and K. J. Scott
The application of fat soluble antioxidants to ‘Jonathan’ apples (Malu.s domestics Borkh.) after harvest reduced the incidence of soft scald which developed in the fruit during cool storage, increased the amount of unsaturated fatty acidss in the surface lipids, and reduced the level of hexanol in the fruit. Diphenylamine, butylated hydroxvanisole and ethoxvquin were the most effective of the compounds tested.
Daniel C. Adjei-Twum, Walter E. Splittstoesser, and Joseph S. Vandemark
During a 6 day sprouting period, carbohydrates and lipids decreased in soybean seeds (Glycine max L.). Stachyose and raffinose which are not digestible by humans, decreased about 80% in 3 days and disappeared in 6 days. Protein decreased slightly while amino acids increased rapidly. Taste acceptability of 3-day-old soybean sprouts and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek var. radiata) sprouts were similar.
E. V. Parups and J. M. Molnar
Unfixed sections of fresh, or 5-day-old, xylem plugged rose stems were examined histochemically. There was evidence that the material blocking xylem vessels of senescing rose stems contained carbohydrates, pectin-, lipid-, and protein-like compounds and some enzymes. Tannins, lignin, and callose were not encountered in the blocked vessels.
Chen Chen, Meng-Ke Zhang, Kang-Di Hu, Ke-Ke Sun, Yan-Hong Li, Lan-Ying Hu, Xiao-Yan Chen, Ying Yang, Feng Yang, Jun Tang, He-Ping Liu, and Hua Zhang
comparison with wild type cells ( Fig. 5B ). MDA, which is an index of lipid peroxidation, was determined in menadione-treated cell. As shown in Fig. 5C , the content of MDA in wild type increased slightly along with treatment time; however, MDA accumulated
Hypodermal mesocarp disks from abscised muskmelon fruits (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.) were floated in 0.00, 0.04 or 0.16 M CaCl2 plus 0.35 M mannitol at ′20C in the dark for 10 days. Changes in chlorophyll, protein and total phospholipids all indicators of membrane senescence were assayed. The catabolism, percent retention, of chlorophyll, protein and total phospholipids was delayed by 0.04 M Ca, but accelerated by 0.16 M compared to no Ca. Loss of membrane integridity, increased free sterol: total phospholipid (umol./umol.), was delayed by 0.04 M Ca, hut accelerated by 0.16 M compared to no Ca. The degree of lipid saturation was inconclusive between Ca treatments. Muskmelon fruit disks membrane lipid degradation is slowed by 0.04 M Ca but accelerated by supraoptimal 0.16 M Ca treatment.
Peter J. Mes*, James R. Myers, and Balz Frei
A nutritional study was initiated to determine which carotenoids found in tomato result in decreased lipid oxidation ex vivo. To compare the carotenoids in a human diet without the use of purified supplements, tomatoes expressing nonfunctional enzymes in the carotenoid pathway were used. Tomato lines carrying the genes t, B, ogc, Del, or r were grown to produce fruit containing with high levels of prolycopene, beta-carotene, lycopene, or delta-carotene respectively, or low total carotenoids in r. Juices were processed from these lines and used in a dietary intervention study. Plasma samples were drawn before and after consumption of each juice. These samples were subjected to a battery of tests to analyze the contribution of carotenoids to the total lipid antioxidant status. Results of these tests are discussed.
Kristina F. Connor, Sharon Sowa, and Robert D. Borchert
A pollen grain undergoes a series of biochemical changes during germination. The technique of cylindrical internal reflectance FTIR was used to examine spectral frequencies associated with respiration, lipid and protein structure, polysaccharide content, and phosphate-containing metabolizes in pollen from pecan, blue spruce, cattail, and pine. Samples of both pollen and germination medium were analyzed at timed intervals. A microscopic evaluation of percent germination was also made at each sampling time. Preliminary analyses indicate that changes in respiration occur as evidenced by the presence of gaseous CO2, and that quantitative changes in lipid and protein occur. FTIR spectroscopy provides a noninvasive method to directly and quantitatively measure metabolic changes associated with pollen germination.
Geraldo A. Maia, W. H. Brown, F. M. Whiting, and J. W. Stull
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids were isolated by silicic acid column chromatography. Each lipid class had characteristic fatty acid distributions with phospholipids being higher in palmitic and oleic acids, and glycolipids being higher in lin oleic acid. Comparative esterification methods indicated that cashew apple juice contained significant amounts of free lauric acid. Oleic and linoleic acids occur in almost identical, amounts in cashew nut testa whereas oleic acid predominates in the kernel. Comparison of fatty acid distributions in pulp and peel from red and yellow cultivars of cashew apple at immature and mature stages shows some differences, with notable increases in oleic acid during maturation and decreases in linoleic and linolenic acids.