A naturally occurring mutant of Chamelaucium uncinatum Schauer (Geraldton wax) is described. It has double flowers with the staminodes transformed into petals. Pollen is exuded from the anthers but is not deposited on the pollen presenter in a lipid droplet, which is normal for the species. An anomalous secondary flower with petals, stamens, and gynoecium is present in the ovary.
Viruses consist of nucleic acid packaged in a protective shell composed of protein or, in some cases, protein plus lipid. This shell protects the nucleic acid from enzymatic degradation while it is outside the host cell in a potentially hostile environment. Recent advances in virus detection and diagnosis are based on increased sensitivity of methods for the detection of proteins and nucleic acids.
During a 6 day sprouting period, carbohydrates and lipids decreased in soybean seeds (Glycine max L.). Stachyose and raffinose which are not digestible by humans, decreased about 80% in 3 days and disappeared in 6 days. Protein decreased slightly while amino acids increased rapidly. Taste acceptability of 3-day-old soybean sprouts and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek var. radiata) sprouts were similar.
The effect of IAA on apical dominance in apple buds was examined in relation to changes in proton density (free water) and membrane lipid composition in lateral buds. Decapitation induced budbreak and enhanced lateral bud growth. IAA replaced apical control of lateral buds and maintained paradormancy. Maximal inhibition was obtained when IAA was applied immediately after the apical bud was removed; delaying application reduced the effect of IAA. An increase in proton density in lateral buds was observed 2 days after decapitation, whereas the change in membrane lipid composition occurred 4 days later. Removing the terminal bud increased membrane galacto- and phospholipids and the ratio of unsaturated to corresponding saturated fatty acids. Decapitation also decreased the ratio of free sterols to phospholipids in lateral buds. Applying thidiazuron to lateral buds of decapitated shoots enhanced these effects, whereas applying IAA to the terminal end of decapitated shoots inhibited the increase of proton density and prevented changes in membrane lipid composition in lateral buds. These results suggest that change in water movement alters membrane lipid composition and then induces lateral bud growth. IAA, presumably produced by the terminal bud, restricts the movement of water to lateral buds and inhibits their growth in apple.
The application of fat soluble antioxidants to ‘Jonathan’ apples (Malu.s domestics Borkh.) after harvest reduced the incidence of soft scald which developed in the fruit during cool storage, increased the amount of unsaturated fatty acidss in the surface lipids, and reduced the level of hexanol in the fruit. Diphenylamine, butylated hydroxvanisole and ethoxvquin were the most effective of the compounds tested.
Unfixed sections of fresh, or 5-day-old, xylem plugged rose stems were examined histochemically. There was evidence that the material blocking xylem vessels of senescing rose stems contained carbohydrates, pectin-, lipid-, and protein-like compounds and some enzymes. Tannins, lignin, and callose were not encountered in the blocked vessels.
comparison with wild type cells ( Fig. 5B ). MDA, which is an index of lipid peroxidation, was determined in menadione-treated cell. As shown in Fig. 5C , the content of MDA in wild type increased slightly along with treatment time; however, MDA accumulated
A nutritional study was initiated to determine which carotenoids found in tomato result in decreased lipid oxidation ex vivo. To compare the carotenoids in a human diet without the use of purified supplements, tomatoes expressing nonfunctional enzymes in the carotenoid pathway were used. Tomato lines carrying the genes t, B, ogc, Del, or r were grown to produce fruit containing with high levels of prolycopene, beta-carotene, lycopene, or delta-carotene respectively, or low total carotenoids in r. Juices were processed from these lines and used in a dietary intervention study. Plasma samples were drawn before and after consumption of each juice. These samples were subjected to a battery of tests to analyze the contribution of carotenoids to the total lipid antioxidant status. Results of these tests are discussed.
A pollen grain undergoes a series of biochemical changes during germination. The technique of cylindrical internal reflectance FTIR was used to examine spectral frequencies associated with respiration, lipid and protein structure, polysaccharide content, and phosphate-containing metabolizes in pollen from pecan, blue spruce, cattail, and pine. Samples of both pollen and germination medium were analyzed at timed intervals. A microscopic evaluation of percent germination was also made at each sampling time. Preliminary analyses indicate that changes in respiration occur as evidenced by the presence of gaseous CO2, and that quantitative changes in lipid and protein occur. FTIR spectroscopy provides a noninvasive method to directly and quantitatively measure metabolic changes associated with pollen germination.
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids were isolated by silicic acid column chromatography. Each lipid class had characteristic fatty acid distributions with phospholipids being higher in palmitic and oleic acids, and glycolipids being higher in lin oleic acid. Comparative esterification methods indicated that cashew apple juice contained significant amounts of free lauric acid. Oleic and linoleic acids occur in almost identical, amounts in cashew nut testa whereas oleic acid predominates in the kernel. Comparison of fatty acid distributions in pulp and peel from red and yellow cultivars of cashew apple at immature and mature stages shows some differences, with notable increases in oleic acid during maturation and decreases in linoleic and linolenic acids.