Genetic characterization of anthracnose resistance in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) Hughes was accomplished using populations developed from crosses between the anthracnose susceptible cultivar US28 and three resistant breeding lines (115-4, 625-3, and 88B147) that varied in their degree of anthracnose resistance and relative stage of adaptation for commercial use. These lines were of common parental lineage with resistance derived from the small-fruited L. esculentum USDA PI 272636. Anthracnose lesion diameters and fruit weight were measured in puncture inoculated fruit of parental, F1, F2, and backcross generations within each cross. Correlation coefficients between fruit size and lesion diameter were low and generally nonsignificant. Estimates of broad and narrow sense heritabilities for resistance were moderate and declined as relative anthracnose susceptibility of the resistant parent increased coincident with increasing horticultural adaptation. A simple additive dominance model, m[d][h], was adequate to explain the genetic variance for anthracnose resistance in all crosses. Genetic variance for anthracnose resistance was primarily additive. The minimum number of effective factors or loci conditioning anthracnose resistance declined during attempts to transfer high levels of resistance from PI 272636 into adapted breeding lines.
John R. Stommel, Judith A. Abbott*, David Francis, and Mary J. Camp
Tomato fruit firmness is a key quality component of tomatoes produced for processing applications. Fruit firmness is generally considered a quantitatively inherited trait. Pericarp firmness of modern tomato cultivars is believed to be derived from a fairly narrow genetic background and is the result of the cumulative effort of numerous breeders over many years. Despite inferior phenotypes, wild species contain loci that can substantially increase tomato fruit quality. In the current study, inheritance of fruit firmness in firm and ultra-firm processing tomato germplasm developed from transgressive segregants of interspecific Lycopersicon esculentum × L. hirsutum and intraspecific L. esculentum crosses was characterized. Large-fruited breeding lines that varied in fruit firmness from soft to firm were identified for genetic analyses. A six-parent diallel of these advanced breeding lines was developed for field trials over multiple locations. Fruit firmness in the resulting 36 lines was determined by measuring fruit elastic properties during fruit puncture and compression. Following loading for compression, stress relaxation was recorded for 15 s. A three-parameter model was used to fit the relaxation curves. There was little correlation between firmness (maximum force) and the three relaxation parameters, i.e., firmness measured the elastic component and the relaxation parameters measured the viscous portions of the texture. General and specific combining ability for firmness derived from the respective genetic backgrounds was determined. Genetic variance components for fruit firmness were estimated using a diallel analysis and narrow sense heritability was measured using parent-offspring regression.
Bruce H. Barritt and Hugh A. Daubeny
Seedlings of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) from 29 crosses were evaluated in a field trial over a 2½-year period for tolerance to a complex of viruses. The seedlings and plants of the parent clones were subjectively rated for tolerance on the basis of vigor, runnering, and appearance of virus symptoms. ‘Totem’ and ‘Aiko’ produced the highest percentage of tolerant-appearing seedlings, while ‘Olympus’, ‘Belrubi’, and ‘Hood’ produced the highest percentage of susceptible seedlings. At the end of the trial, when the symptoms were most severe, heritability for tolerance was 0.73. Specific combining ability variance was much smaller than general combining ability variance, indicating that a high proportion of genetic variance was additive. Therefore, rapid progress in breeding for tolerance can be expected from selecting parent clones on the basis of phenotypic performance.
J.J. Luby and C.E. Finn
The intervals, in days, between 10%, 50%, and 90% ripened fruit, as well as crop load, were estimated over 2 years in progenies from a partial diallel cross among 17 blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L., V. angustifolium Ait., and V. corymbosum × V. angustifolium hybrids) parents. General combining ability (GCA) mean squares were highly significant for all ripening intervals and for crop load, while specific combining ability mean squares were nonsignificant, indicating a large proportion of additive genetic variance. Narrow-sense heritability estimates were about 0.50 for the three ripening intervals (10–50%, 50–90%, and 10–90%). Several parents had large positive GCA effects, indicating their contribution to a long ripening interval. Most progenies with large crop loads required >15 days between 10% and 90% ripened fruit. Despite the consistently positive relationship between ripening interval length and crop load, variation among families and the potential for within-family segregation suggest the possibility of obtaining genotypes with high yield potential and improved uniform ripening.
P.D. Griffiths and J.W. Scott
Tomato mottle virus (ToMoV) is a silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring n. sp.) transmitted, bipartite geminivirus that infects tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Inbred lines resistant to ToMoV were derived from Lycopersicon chilense Dunal accession LA 1932. Inheritance was studied using a family developed from the crossing of a resistant inbred with a susceptible tomato inbred over two seasons. The F1 had resistance intermediate to the parents and generation means analysis of F1 and F2, backcross and parental populations suggested that the action of at least two additive genes with high heritability (h2 n.s. = 0.87) controlled ToMoV resistance. When data from the two seasons were combined, an acceptable fit to an additive-dominance genetic model was obtained. Single plant comparisons, bulk comparisons, and tailends of F2 populations segregating for ToMoV resistance derived from LA 1932 identified randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers using eight hundred 10-mer oligonucleotide primers. The F2 populations used for inheritance studies were screened for polymorphic markers, and 12 RAPD markers associated with the ToMoV resistant line were linked to the morphological markers self-pruning (sp) and potato leaf (c) on chromosome 6. RAPD markers that were associated with ToMoV resistance segregated into two linked regions flanking either side of the sp and c loci. The molecular studies suggested that the action of at least two additive regions controlled ToMoV resistance which supported the inheritance analysis.
A. Rodríguez-Burruezo, J. Prohens, and F. Nuez
Twenty-six clones of pepino (Solanum muricatum Aiton) were evaluated for yield, fruit weight, fruit shape (length to width ratio), soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and ascorbic acid concentration (AAC) over two growing seasons: autumn-winter (AW) and spring-summer (SS). Significant differences were found for the effects of clone, season, and clon× season interaction for all traits, except in the case of season for fruit shape. Mean values for yield, SSC, and AAC were higher in the AW than in the SS season, while mean fruit weight and TA were lower. Many clones (13 in AW and six in SS) had a yield higher than 30 t·ha-1. Substantial genotypic variation was found for all traits studied except for SSC. Clones stable for all traits were detected over both seasons, except for SSC, where the differences between seasons were very high. The significant clone × season interaction for all traits indicates that selection of genotypes adapted specifically to either AW or SS seasons would maximize the response to selection. Broad sense heritabilities were highest for fruit shape and yield (>0.70), while SSC had the lowest values (0.39 in AW, 0.17 in SS, and almost 0 when considering both seasons combined). For the AW season, significant fruit weight-SSC and fruit weight-AAC genotypic correlations were detected; for the SS season the significant genotypic correlations were yield-SSC, fruit weight-TA, fruit shape-TA, and SSC-TA. Results suggest there are ample opportunities for improving several traits in this crop using intraspecific variation for adaptation to specific environments.
Craig Hardner, João Costa e Silva, Emlyn Williams, Noel Meyers, and Cameron McConchie
between seedling and grafted plants, after removal of a general average propagation effect. Narrow-sense heritability and individual broad-sense heritability were estimated for each trait at the t th trial by p th density as: h t p 2 = v A s p v A s p
Creighton L. Gupton and James M. Spiers
A study of leaf chlorosis in rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade) grown in soil containing 300 to 400 ppm diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extracted Mn revealed no relationship between leaf Mn content and chlorosis. A second study was conducted to estimate heritability of the content of Mn, Fe, and certain other mineral elements that have been associated with leaf chlorosis and to determine the genetic relationships among shoot dry weight, visual rating, and the mineral elements in rabbiteye blueberry. Heritability estimates were high for all variables except Fe, suggesting that changes in Mn, Zn, Ca, Mg, or K contents could be expected from phenotypic recurrent selection. However, manipulation of mineral content probably would not ameliorate the Fe chlorosis. The high heritability of shoot dry weight and visual rating and the high genetic correlation between these variables suggest that plants resistant to mineral effects on Fe metabolism can be selected on the basis of visual rating.
M. H. Dickson and R. Petzoldt
Heat at any growth stage can damage green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), but plants are most susceptible at or near bloom. The effect of heat during the bloom period resulted in reduction of a yield in proportion to the duration of the heat period. The most critical growth stage was found to be 2 to 3 days before anthesis, rather than at anthesis itself. By subjecting F1 plants to heat during the bloom period, genetic selection for heat tolerance was moderately effective. The heritability for heat tolerance was quite low. Broad-sense heritability was 19% to 79% and narrow-sense heritability 0% to 14%. These values are probably conservative, since during the genetic study the heat period was initiated on the first day of bloom, which resulted in some escapes and excess variability.
Creighton L. Gupton and Barbara J. Smith
Experiments were conducted to estimate the relative importance of additive and dominance genetic variances and non-allelic interactions in the inheritance of resistance to Colletotrichum spp. in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). Progeny of 40 parents crossed in a Comstock and Robinson Design II Mating scheme were inoculated with three isolates of C. fragariae and one isolate of C. acutatum. Disease development on each plant was rated visually. Variance components were estimated and converted to genetic variances. Estimates of were six to 10 times higher than those for Within-family variance not accounted for by equaled 35% and 38% of the total genetic variance in females and males, respectively, indicating probable epistatic effects. The frequency distribution of disease severity ratings was bimodal in both experiments, suggesting major gene action. Narrow-sense heritability estimates were 0.37 and 0.26, and broad-sense heritability estimates were 0.87 and 0.85 for females and males, respectively. Narrow-sense heritability estimates are probably sufficient to produce gains from recurrent selection. Gains from selection of clonal value should be possible because of the high broad sense heritability estimates. It appears feasible to establish a broad genetic-based population resistant to Colletotrichum spp. from which selections could be evaluated per se and/or recombined to produce improved populations.