associated with L* but rather with changes in a* and b*, which mirror changes in color rather than intensity. Loss of vase life in anthurium is as a result of loss of spathe glossiness, spathe, and spadix browning and spathe bluing ( Elibox and Umaharan, 2008
Omaira Avila-Rostant, Adrian M. Lennon, and Pathmanathan Umaharan
Michael Knee, Peg McMahon, and Glenn Carey
An undergraduate class in postharvest physiology observed a number of factors in the senescence of cut roses, which had been studied separately in the literature. They assessed the relative importance of the factors in determining vase life. `Samantha' roses were held at 20C in distilled water or a floral preservative. Ethylene treatment caused petal distortion and premature senescence. Floral preservatives stimulated ethylene production, although vase life was extended relative to flowers in water. Higher sugar contents and respiration were maintained in preservative than in water. Water uptake by roses was almost constant, but stem resistance to water flow increased faster in water than in preservative. In the 2nd week of vase life, transpiration exceeded water uptake, particularly for roses in water. As much of this water was lost through leaves as through the flower. The results suggest that a complex interaction of several factors determines vase life.
James E. Baker, Chien Yi Wang, Morris Lieberman, and Robert Hardenburg
The rhizobitoxine analog, L-2-amino-4-(2-aminoethoxy)-trans-3-butenoic acid, and sodium benzoate inhibited ethylene production in cut flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus, L. cv. White Sim) and extended the vase life by several days. The rhizobitoxine analog (Ro) and sodium benzoate were added to a basal holding solution of 2% sucrose, 0.02% 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate, and 0.02 M potassium citrate buffer (pH 4.7). The results indicate that Ro at 0.068 mM increased the vase life of cut carnations by 95% or more. Sodium benzoate at 1.0 or 2.0 mM also increased the vase life. The compounds may have increased vase life of the flowers by inhibiting ethylene production. The effects of these compounds were over and above the effects of sucrose, 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate, and acid pH of the holding solution.
Ernest K. Akamine and Theodore Goo
Cold storage at 13°C or storage in 2% O, at 24–25°C was beneficial for extending the vase life of cut ‘Ozaki’ flowers of anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum Lind.).
William R. Woodson
The opening of Freesia hybrida Bailey flowers cut in the tight bud stage was promoted by treatment with sucrose and 200 mg·liter−1 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate. A pulse treatment for 24 to 48 hr with 20% sucrose resulted in complete inflorescence development and prolonged vase life. Reduced sucrose concentrations or increased pulse durations were not as effective. Pulse-treating flowers with 20% sucrose for 24 hr prior to 3 days of simulated shipping improved subsequent flower opening and vase life.
D. D. Mathur, R. H. Stamps, and C. A. Conover
Reduction of irrigation level on leatherleaf fern [Rumohra adiantiformis (G. Forst) Ching] to 150 cm/year from 311 cm/year (recommended rate) had no effect on frond yield or fresh weight and increased vase life on 3 of 7 harvest dates. Nitrogen sources of urea or NH4NO3 did not affect frond yield or fresh weight, but there were some minor variable effects on vase life.
Rufus B. Rutland
The market quality and vase life of cut flowers of Chrysanthemum morifolium, Ram., were not adversely affected by growing the plants in soil having an electrical conductance of the saturated paste extract (ECe) of 3.6 millimho/cm if high soil water content was maintained by wick irrigation. However, shorter stems, smaller flowers, lighter wt flowers, and flowers of shorter vase life were produced at ECe 3.6 than at ECe 1.8 under manual irrigation by hose. The optimal condition for most growth criteria was ECe 3.6 with wick irrigation, but the optimum for vase life was ECe 1.8. A salinity of ECe 4.0, in which KCI or K2SO4 was high, caused a slight reduction in growth and vase life but was not as severe as an ECe 3.6 with manual irrigation.
In an experiment of factorial design, high salinity (ECe 4.0), sand-peat soil of low water-holding capacity (WHC 32%), and manual irrigation resulted in shorter stems, smaller flowers, lower stem substance, and shorter vase life than was produced under low salinity (ECe 2.0), high water-holding soil (clay-peat of WHC 46%), and automatic irrigation. Automatic irrigation prevented an adverse effect of soil salinity on stem substance, flower size and flower longevity of the plants growing in the clay-peat medium but not of those growing in sand-peat.
Daryl C. Joyce
Abscission of flowers of Geraldton wax (Chamelaucium uncinatum Schau., Myrtaceae) exposed to ethylene was prevented by pulsing with silver thiosulfate. Both a short pulse (15 min, 4.0 mm Ag+) at 25°C and an overnight pulse (0.5 mm Ag+) at 2° were effective treatments. Silver thiosulfate did not improve the vase-life of flowers held in air. Gamma irradiation (60Co source), an insect control measure, resulted in a reduction in vase-life; even at doses as low as 0.05 kGy. Vase-life of Geraldton wax flowers was not affected by prior storage for up to 2 weeks at 0° to 2°. Iprodione pretreatment (1 g·liter−1, 30-sec dip) for Botrytis cinerea Pers. control improved the vase-life of flowers stored for 2 weeks. A preservative solution containing sucrose (1% to 3% w/v) and 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate (200 mg·liter−1) increased the vase-life of Geraldton wax flowers. Higher sucrose levels (>5% w/v) may cause desiccation of foliage and excessive nectar secretion from floral nectaries. Chemical name used: 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-(1-methylethyl)-2,4-dioxo-1-imidazolidinecarboxamide (iprodione).
Kenneth R. Schroeder and Dennis P. Stimart
In an effort to reduce chemical usage to prolong postharvest keeping time of cut flowers, a cross was made between a long-lived (vase life, 10.9 days) inbred line of Antirrhinum majus and a short-lived (vase life, 5.0 days) inbred line. The F1 hybrid was backcrossed to the short-lived parent. Sixty plants of the BC1 generation were carried on through three generations of selfing by single-seed descent. Eight replications each of 60 BC1S3 families, the parents, and the F1 hybrid were grown in the greenhouse, harvested with 40-cm stems when five florets opened, and placed in distilled water for vase life evaluation. Stems were discarded when 50% of the florets on a spike wilted, browned, or dried. Three families proved not significantly different from the long-lived inbred parent. Results indicate that inbred backcross breeding shows potential to increase the postharvest keeping time of short-lived Antirrhinum majus inbred lines.