Herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. During the 1995 season six preemergent herbicides [(in kg·ha–1) Napropamide (Devrinol 10G), 4.5 and 9.1; Isoxaben (Gallery 75DF), 1.1 and 2.3; Oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G), 4.5 and 9.1; Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout 3G), 3.4 and 13.6; Oryzalin (Surflan AS), 2.8 and 4.5; and Trifluralin (Treflan 5G) 4.5 and 9.1, were tested on Callirhoe involucrata, Delosperma nubigenum, Dendranthemum ×morifolium `Jennifer', Festuca cinerea `Sea Urchin', and Gypsophila paniculata `Fairy's Pink'. Isoxaben (both rates) resulted in visual phytotoxicity symptoms and sometimes death to Dendranthemum. Oxadiazon (9.1 kg·ha–1) and Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (both rates) resulted in plant chlorosis and necrosis to Delosperma soon after herbicide application, but plants outgrew herbicide damage. Napropamide (both rates), applied to Delosperma, resulted in less dry weight when compared to some of the other herbicide treatments. Oryzalin (4.5 kg·ha–1) resulted in visual phytotoxicity and less plant dry weight to Festuca. Data analysis revealed no significant differences in Callirhoe and Gypsophila. In general, most herbicides controlled weeds effectively.
Hoeing and glyphosate (N-(phosphomomethyl)glycine) application with a hand-held wiper were compared for weed control in mixed vegetable plantings. Weed control with wiper-applied glyphosate required significantly less labor and expense than hoeing. Vegetable yields were similar in hoed and wiper-weeded plots and both methods increased the yields of some vegetable species over yields from unweeded plots. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) shoot populations were reduced significantly by wiper weeding but not by hoeing.
Roots growing out of container drainholes, and weeds growing on the sandbed surface, are the two major problems associated with the use of sandbed subirrigation systems for nursery crop production. Adjusting the water level within the sandbed, application of herbicides to the sandbed surface, placing weed barriers on the sandbed surface, and placing copper hydroxide-treated weed barriers on the sandbed surface were tested to control rooting-out and weed growth. Coppertreated barriers provided the best control of rooting-out and weed growth without reducing the shoot growth of heather, forsythia, or weigela. Several herbicides provided good control of rooting-out and weed growth without reducing the shoot growth of daphne.
Application of linuron was compared with hand-weeding and a nontreated control (= control) for weed control in carrots. Linuron, applied pre- or postemergent, was slightly less effective than the 100% weed control obtained by hand-weeding. Carrot yields were similar for all treatments, and were at least six times as great as in the control. In 1996, linuron treatments returned net profits ranging from $980 to $1887 per ha, compared to $740 for hand-weeding and -$2975 for the control. In 1997, return on linuron treatments was greater, ranging from $5326 to $6426, compared with $2852 for hand-weeding. Marginal rates of return ranged from 21% to 86% in 1996. In 1997, rates of return for every dollar invested in linuron were over 59%. Chemical name used: N′-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methoxy-N-methylurea (linuron).
Application of linuron was compared with hand-weeding and a nontreated control (= control) for weed control in carrots. Linuron, applied pre- or postemergent, was slightly less effective than the 100% weed control obtained by hand-weeding. Carrot yields were similar for all treatments, and were at least six times as great as in the control. In 1996, linuron treatments returned net profits ranging from $980 to $1887 per ha, compared to $740 for hand-weeding and - $2975 for the control. In 1997, return on linuron treatments was greater, ranging from $5326 to $6426, compared with $2852 for hand-weeding. Marginal rates of return ranged from 21% to 86% in 1996. In 1997, rates of return for every dollar invested in linuron were over 59%. Chemical name used: N′-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methoxy-N-methylurea (linuron).
The influence of `Elbon', `Maton', and `Wheeler' winter rye (Secale cereale) with or without herbicide treatments on weed control in no-tillage (NT) zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo) was determined. `Elbon' or `Maton' produced higher residue biomass, greater soil coverage, and higher weed control compared with `Wheeler'. Although winter rye alone did not provide sufficient weed control (generally <70%), it provided substantially greater redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and smooth crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum) control (regardless of cultivar used) compared with no winter rye at both 28 and 56 days after transplanting (DAT). No effect (P > 0.05) of winter rye cultivar on early or total squash yield was detected. Although applying clomazone + ethalfluralin to winter rye residues improved redroot pigweed control compared with no herbicide, the level of control was generally not adequate (<85% control) by 56 DAT. Treatments that included halosulfuron provided greater control of redroot pigweed than clomazone + ethalfluralin, and redroot pigweed control from halosulfuron treatments was similar to the weed-free control. However, regardless of year or cover crop, any treatment with halosulfuron caused unacceptable injury to zucchini squash plants which lead to reduced squash yield (primarily early yields). Insignificant amounts of squash injury (<10% due to stunting) resulted from clomazone + ethalfluralin in no-tillage plots during either year. Treatments with clomazone + ethalfluralin had early and total yields that were similar to those of the weed-free control, although this herbicide combination provided less weed control compared with the weed-free control.
Yields and economic returns above treatment variable costs were determined for young `Desirable' pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] trees grown for nine seasons under ten combinations of orchard floor management practice and irrigation. Orchard floor management practices were 1) no weed control, 2) mowed, 3) total weed control with herbicides, 4) grass control only with herbicides, or 5) disking, and trees were either irrigated or nonirrigated. Total weed control with herbicides increased cumulative yield through the ninth growing season by 358% compared to no weed control. In the humid environment where this experiment was conducted, irrigation did not increase crop value obtained from the young trees, except for 1 year. At the end of the ninth season, total weed control with herbicides was the only treatment to have a positive net present value. These data indicate that establishment costs for young `Desirable' pecan trees can be recovered as early as the eighth growing season if competition from weeds is totally eliminated.
In the tropics, weed control is a year-round concern. The use of cover crops in a conservation tillage system allows for the production of a crop biomass that can be killed and mowed, and later used as mulching material to help reduce weed growth. This study compared yields of three vegetable species grown in two conventional tillage systems, one weeded and one unweeded control, and in two no-tillage treatments using two different cover crop species, oats (Avena sativa L. `Cauyse') and rye grain (Secale cereale L.). The cover crops were seeded (112 kg/ha) in Spring 1998 in 4 × 23-m plots in a RCB design with six replications per treatment, and mowed down at the flowering stage before transplanting the seedlings. Data collection throughout the experimental period included quadrant weed counts, biomass levels, and crop marketable yields. Weed suppression was compared with the yields of the vegetable crops. The greatest vegetable yields were in the conventionally hand-weeded control and the worst in the un-weeded controls. Weed species composition varied depending on the cover crop species treatment. The rye better suppressed weed growth than the oats, with greater control of grass species. Rye, however, suppressed romaine and bell pepper yields more than the oat treatments. Similarly greater eggplant yields and more fruit per plant were found in the oat treatment than in the rye. Both cover crops suppressed weed growth for the first month; however, by the second month most plots had extensive weed growth. This study showed that at the given cover crop seeding rate, the mulch produced was not enough to reduce weed growth and provide acceptable yields of various vegetable crops.
The IR-4 program works to identify potential minor-use horticultural chemicals and evaluate them for phytotoxicity and efficacy. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate phytotoxicity and weed control of three unlabeled herbicides on field production of Hemerocallis spp. `Ming Toy'. Ten-cm pots of `Ming Toy' were planted into the field 16 July 2001. Each plot consisted of 3 plants per treatment with 6 replications in a completely random design. Each herbicide was analyzed as a separate experiment. Herbicide treatments consisted of clopyralid (0.14, 0.28, 0.56, or 1.1 kg·ha-1 a.i.), clethodim (125, 250, or 500 mL·L-1 a.i.), or bentazon (1.1, 2.2, or 4.4 kg·ha-1 a.i.). Data collected included weed number, percentage of weed coverage (% weed coverage), and phytotoxicity and foliar color ratings for `Ming Toy'. Clopyralid reduced total weed number 90 DAT although % weed coverage was similar or worse compared to the control treatment. Phytotoxicity 90 DAT was not significant for plants treated with clopyralid, but foliar color ratings were reduced. Application of clethodim to `Ming Toy' plots, regardless of rate, resulted in similar weed numbers compared to the control 49 DAT. Clethodim application, regardless of rate, reduced % weed coverage compared to the control treatment. Phytotoxicity 90 DAT was not significant, regardless of herbicide treatment, but foliar color ratings were lower for herbicide treated plants compared to the control. Bentazon, regardless of rate, reduced weed number and % weed coverage 49 DAT compared to the control. Phytotoxicity was similar to the control for plants treated with 1.1 kg·ha-1 a.i.
Flumioxazin (Chateau 51WG) is an herbicide for the preemergence and early postemergence control of broadleaves and grasses. Chateau was recently labeled for use in non-bearing fruit trees and bearing grapes. Long-term weed control in apple, peach, and blueberry was investigated following fall application of herbicides. Treatments consisted of simazine 2.8 kg a.i., norflurazon 2.24 kg a.i., napropamide 2.24 kg a.i., and oryzalin 2.24 kg a.i. were applied on 11 Nov. 2003. Flumioxazin was also applied at 0.1 and 0.43 kg ai on apple and peach. All treatments included glyphosate 1 lb a.i. for burndown control of preexisting weeds. Weed control evaluation in mid-April or 4 months after application showed that flumioxazin-treated plots had no weeds present and no weed regrowth. Plots treated with napropamide, norflurazon, and oryzalin showed significant regrowth of dandelion, common ragweed, and chickweed. Simazine plots had fewer weeds germinating than the other herbicides. By early June or 6 months after application, no differences in residual weed control were observed for all treated plots when compared to the control. All plots were equally weedy and required immediate floor management measures. It appears that flumioxazin weed control benefit was exhausted by 6 months after application, compared to 4 months for all other herbicides. Fall application of flumioxazin can eliminate the need for early spring weed control. This time saved can be spent on other important activities such as pruning and disease and insect control.