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Yunwen Wang, Huangjun Lu, Richard N. Raid, Gregg S. Nuessly, and Georgy Faroutine

leaves with small water-soaked angular leaf lesions, and later become brown to black necrotic and papery ( Koike and Gilbertson, 1997 ). The symptoms then spread to other parts of the lettuce plants, resulting in unmarketable heads or hearts. Epidemiology

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Andre Luiz Biscaia Ribeiro da Silva, Joara Secchi Candian, Elizanilda Ramalho do Rego, Timothy Coolong, and Bhabesh Dutta

on cabbage are characterized by V-shaped chlorotic lesions at the leaf margin, followed by necrosis and darkened veins that consequently reduce movement of water and nutrients through xylem tissues, reducing cabbage yield and head quality ( Vicente

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Patrick J. Conner

scored: 1 = no scab lesions, 2 = a few isolated lesions with restricted growth, 3 = multiple lesions with expanding growth, and 4 = stem scab lesions or defoliation. Nut scab was scored using a five-point scale with the maximum level of infection scored

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David Campbell, Ali Sarkhosh, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman, Oscar Liburd, Juan Carlos Melgar, and Danielle Treadwell

controlled environment storage room with an average of 19.3 °C and RH of 82.6% with SDs of 0.38 and 7.44, respectively (HOBO MX2302A; Onset Computer, Bourne, MA). Fruit with suspected fungal lesions were submitted to the UF/IFAS Plant Diagnostic Center for

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Ramón A. Arancibia, Jeffrey L. Main, and Christopher A. Clark

isolations have been inconsistent with this disorder: different pathogens and nonpathogens were isolated while in some cases nothing was isolated from lesions ( da Silva and Clark, 2012 ; Stokes et al., 2012 ). Therefore, a relationship with stress has been

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Jacqueline Joshua and Margaret T. Mmbaga

used clean media disks. Each isolate was tested on four plants arranged in a randomized complete block design. Development of root rot lesions was monitored and evaluated 14 d after inoculation when some roots were completely girdled with necrotic

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Teresa E. Seijo, Natalia A. Peres, and Zhanao Deng

). Symptoms of BB begin as small, angular, water-soaked lesions visible on the lower leaf surface. The lesion can either expand in between major veins causing a large V-shaped necrotic area or veins can be infected and cause necrosis of the vein and adjacent

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Richard L. Bell and Tom van der Zwet

program initiated by Merton Waite in 1908 ( Magness, 1937 ). It was tested as OHUS 66170-047 and was selected in 1977 from the seedling orchard at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center in Wooster, OH by R.C. Blake and T. van der Zwet

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Joshua K. Craver, Chad T. Miller, Kimberly A. Williams, and Nora M. Bello

to describe this disorder, other common and interchangeably used nomenclature in the published literature includes excrescences, neoplasms, galls, genetic tumors, leaf lesions, enations, and oedemata ( Pinkard et al., 2006 ). Intumescences can have a

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Lisa Keith, Tracie Matsumoto, Kate Nishijima, Marisa Wall, and Mike Nagao

in the field. ( A ) Discrete dark brown lesions on the fruit surface and dark brown to black, coalescing lesions giving rise to dried and cracked appearance (cultivar Jitlee). ( B ) Mature cultivar Binjai fruit with dark brown lesions on rind and