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David Noshad, Andrew Riseman, and Zamir Punja

quickly, as the name suggests, following the first foliar symptoms. Observations on DSDS-infected plants indicate the following progression of symptoms: 1) brown to black necrotic lesions on the roots, 2) leaf chlorosis leading to abscission, 3) whole

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Jorge Pinochet

(nonreproducing galls) indicating that a resistance mechanism (hypersensitive reaction) suppressed nematode development resulting in the disruption of the life cycle ( Marull et al., 1994 ). The minor galling observed with little or no nematode reproduction is

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Corina Serban, Lee Kalcsits, Jennifer DeEll, and James P. Mattheis

developed from bitter pit lesions, but bitter pit was not always accompanied by leather blotch ( Mattheis et al., 2017 ). Figure 2 illustrates the sequential development of leather blotch symptoms on a fruit treated with 1-MCP compared with an untreated

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Tom Forge, Gerry Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, Eugene Hogue, and Dana Faubion

, it improved uptake of N, P, and K ( Neilsen et al., 2003a ), generally improving soil fertility ( Neilsen et al., 2003b ) and soil biology, including apparent suppression of root-lesion nematode ( Pratylenchus penetrans ) populations ( Forge et al

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Sabin Khanal, Sarah R. Hind, and Mohammad Babadoost

lesions on leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits ( Egel et al., 2018 ; Jones, 1991 ). During the initial stages of disease development, symptoms develop as circular water-soaked lesions that dry out to give a greasy appearance, and eventually turn dark

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Kalpana Sharma, Erica Goss, and Ariena H.C. van Bruggen

design with four replications (five plants per replication) per treatment. The experiment was repeated. Plants were checked for symptom development on a daily basis. Disease severity was determined from the length and width of lesions with acervuli on

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Rachel E. Rudolph, Thomas W. Walters, Lisa W. DeVetter, and Inga A. Zasada

, including posts and wire, is then put in place. One of the primary production challenges red raspberry growers confront is soilborne diseases, which includes root lesion nematodes ( Zasada et al., 2015 ). This migratory endoparasite moves between soil and

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Michelle A. Grabowski and Dean K. Malvick

but found no correlation in sunflower and varying results for soybean. In studies evaluating field and vegetable crops, genetic resistance is often attributed to varieties that have slower lesion length development ( Blanchette and Auld, 1978 ; Sedun

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Bernard H. Zandstra, Sylvia Morse, Rodney V. Tocco, and Jarrod J. Morrice

Fusarium infection ( Morrison et al., 2011 ) potentially leading to decreased yields. In addition, growers in Michigan have reported the development of lesions on spears from fields treated with flumioxazin that may be related to yield decline (J. Bakker

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James A. LaMondia and Nina Shishkoff

lesions leading to defoliation and shoot death ( Douglas, 2012 ). The disease has resulted in serious losses of more than $5.5 million in dead or destroyed boxwood plants to date in Connecticut alone, $3 million in the first year after identification of