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From colonial times to the present, America has prized education as the provider of individual opportunity, as well as our national progress. The value of practical education was delineated clearly with the passage of the Land-grant “Morrill Act” by the U.S. Congress, signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1862. The Land-grant Act provided grants of federal land to every state that agreed to establish at least one college to teach agriculture and the mechanic arts along with other scientific and classical subjects. This and subsequent legislation to support research and extension developed the “trilogy of American ingenuity”—the blended roles of teaching, research, and public service that form both the mission and strength of America's land-grant universities.

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A list of the consumer horticulture publications available from the cooperative extension service of each state was compiled. This list was prepared under the auspices of the ASHS Extension Consumer Horticulture Working Group and will be available for distribution. This list includes extension publications, leaflets and other extension materials appropriate for continuing education programs in consumer horticulture.

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poinsettias can develop branches that are more susceptible to breakage and increase transportation costs ( Clifford et al., 2004 ). Therefore, plant growth retardants are commonly used to suppress stem extension to produce more compact plants. Chlormequat

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In a unique partnership. the University of Kentucky Dept. of Horticulture, the Cooperative Extension Service, and the Kentucky State Division of Forestry are teaming up to produce two training packages for “train-the-trainer” workshops throughout the state. The workshops will be open to people interested in urban/community trees and arboriculture.

The first training session will be held in 1993 and will cover five modules: 1) Designing the planting site to compensate for a disturbed environment; 2) Species selection for the existing site; 3) Scientific planting techniques; 4) Post-planting care: and 5) Integrated pest management.

The second training session will be held in 1994 and will cover the following topics: 1) Establishing a scientific management program for the urban forest; 2) Preparation and administration of grants: 3) Fund-raising and efficient use of volunteers; 4) Developing an urban tree inventory; 5) Recognition of hazard trees; and 6) Selecting quality nursery stock.

The training packages will consist of a written manual, videos, and slide sets. Training sessions are open to foresters, county agents, city planners, developers, and others in Kentucky who are interested in returning to their communities and training others on the topics covered.

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180 ORAL SESSION (Abstr. 736-743) Education/Extension

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37 ORAL SESSION 4 (Abstr. 419-426) Extension: Technology Transfer

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formed in 2009 ( Fulcher et al., 2011 ) to reduce these losses and coordinate the creation and production of extension resources. A primary goal of the group was to produce regional information to maximize impact, whereby extension specialists and

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Abstract

Apple orchards are highly diversified and complex ecological and economic systems. Production is affected by a wide range of insect, disease, weed, and mammalian pests, and is subject to the same economic and social constraints as any business enterprise. A computer technology, expert systems (ES), is being used to assist fruit growers, county extension agents, and private consultants in making better decisions about the complex horticultural, entomological, and pathological orchard problems.

Open Access

With funding to increase support for organic farming research at land grant universities, organic growers have collaborated with faculty and administrators to develop an undergraduate, interdisciplinary minor at the University of Florida. Required introductory courses focus on general concepts of organic and sustainable farming, alternative cropping systems, production programs, handling, and marketing issues. An advanced horticulture course requires intensive examination of certification procedures, farm plans, soil fertility, and crop management, all of which are integrated into a required field project. Extension faculty have also fostered development of this new curriculum by coordinating regional workshops and field days in collaboration with organic growers and by developing educational materials on organic certification and related issues.

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The first prison-based Master Gardener (MG) program in South Carolina was piloted at a minimum security prison for men and women in Columbia in 1991. Since then, 130 inmates have become certified MGs at 7 South Carolina Department of Corrections institutions. Certification is awarded after the inmates complete 40 hours of training provided by grounds maintenance staff, county extension agents, and MGs. Besides offering green-industry job skills, successfully completing the program offered inmates a sense of academic accomplishment and sparked their interest in horticulture.

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