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Amaya Atucha, Ian A. Merwin, Chandra K. Purohit, and Michael G. Brown

relatively low compared with the losses from ground-applied N fertilizer applications in greater amounts. Literature Cited Atucha, A. Merwin, I.A. Brown, M.G. 2011 Long-term effects of four groundcover management systems in an apple orchard HortScience 46

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Azeezahmed Shaik and Sukhbir Singh

higher plant height and thicker stem diameter compared with other fertilizer treatments in a soil-based production system, which could be due to the higher available N in the soil through vermicompost application. In our study, nonsignificant differences

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John C. Majsztrik, Andrew G. Ristvey, David S. Ross, and John D. Lea-Cox

process uses a risk assessment strategy based on N, P, irrigation application, and surface water runoff risk, not on a crop nutrient removal basis, as is used for agronomic crops ( Lea-Cox and Ross, 2001 ). This process assesses the potential for N and P

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M. Lenny Wells

form of leaf and litter fall may reduce soil temperatures and increase soil moisture in orchard systems. Thus, microbial biomass and nutrient cycling processes are affected by the altered microclimate in orchard and agroforestry systems as compared with

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Sally M. Schneider, Husein A. Ajwa, Thomas J. Trout, and Suduan Gao

others do not. A material can be effective at the point of application, but the fumigant must be distributed throughout the target zone at concentrations sufficient to kill soil pests. Drip application offers advantages such as a closed application system

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Clinton J. Hunnicutt, Andrew W. MacRae, and Vance M. Whitaker

Doohan conducted trials with clopyralid application rates ranging from 25 to 400 g·ha −1 applied as a postharvest spray in a perennial strawberry production system. Common groundsel ( Senecio vulgaris ) control of 82% was achieved when clopyralid was

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Brandon M. Miller and William R. Graves

example, Dirr (2009) attributed the 60% mortality of transplanted seedling liners of Carya ovata to their carrot-like taproot. Because of this issue, the extent of production and horticultural application of hickories in the nursery trade remain

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Chunxian Chen, Jude W. Grosser, Milica Ćalović, Patricia Serrano, Gemma Pasquali, Julie Gmitter, and Fred G. Gmitter Jr

Somatic hybridization is a powerful tool for the genetic improvement of citrus scion and rootstock cultivars, and the potential applications of this approach have been described previously ( Grosser and Gmitter, 1990 ). Numerous citrus somatic

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Takafumi Kinoshita and Masaharu Masuda

decrease capillary action. To solve this problem, Masuda (2008) developed a root-proof capillary-wick irrigation system for long-term vegetable production by making the wick impenetrable to the roots. In this irrigation system, water is stably supplied by

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Mindy L. Bumgarner, K. Francis Salifu, Michael V. Mickelbart, and Douglass F. Jacobs

substantially conserve irrigation water ( Dumroese et al., 2006 ; Landis and Wilkinson, 2004 ) and promote plant growth at reduced nutrient applications compared with overhead systems ( Beeson and Knox, 1991 ; Pinto et al., 2008 ). Subirrigated forest tree