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Marjorie Reyes-Díaz, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Rayen Millaleo, Edgardo Cruces, Cristián Wulff-Zottele, Miren Alberdi, and María de la Luz Mora

., 2003 ). Although Al 3+ cannot catalyze redox reactions, lipid peroxidation (LP) and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common and early symptoms of Al 3+ toxicity in plants, followed by alterations in the integrity of the plasma

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Kaori Ando and Rebecca Grumet

highly abundant transcripts (present at >0.15% of total EST reads) are listed in Table 3 . The predicted functions included latex-related proteins, and proteins associated with lipids, growth, protein synthesis, defense, phloem transport, and

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Ustun Sahin, Melek Ekinci, Fatih Mehmet Kiziloglu, Ertan Yildirim, Metin Turan, Recep Kotan, and Selda Ors

oven at 70 °C for 48 h to obtain dry weight (DW). Values of FW, TW, and DW were used to determine the LRWC using the following equation: Lipid peroxidation (measurement of MDA). Lipid peroxidation was estimated by determining the MDA contents according

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Cui-ping Hua, Zhong-kui Xie, Zhi-jiang Wu, Yu-bao Zhang, Zhi-hong Guo, Yang Qiu, Le Wang, and Ya-jun Wang

stress and lipid peroxidation of lily roots, increased the content of H 2 O 2 and MDA, and induced the changes of activities of antioxygen protective enzymes and the content of total phenol. Other research demonstrates the phytotoxicity of PA, which

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Naveen Kumar and Robert C. Ebel

proposed that CMNP-induced lipid signaling in FT promotes abscission in calyx AZ ( Alferez et al., 2005 ). CMNP-mediated higher levels of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and LOX activities were observed in FT ( Alferez et al., 2005 ). However, inhibitory studies

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S. Mark Goodwin, Christopher J. Edwards, Matthew A. Jenks, and Karl V. Wood

, whereas ‘Mister Lincoln” and ‘Knockout’ were reported as highly resistant ( Holcomb and Raiford, 2001 ; Hong et al., 2001 ). For all cuticle lipid analysis, the central, terminal leaflets were excised from newly expanded leaves at the third node from the

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Elvia Hernández-Gómez, Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Ana M. Castillo-González, María T. Colinas-León, Donita L. Cartmill, Andrew D. Cartmill, and R. Hugo Lira-Saldívar

. At optimum supplementation, N stimulates growth, delays senescence, modifies plant morphology, increases protein synthesis, and chloroplast formation as well as the concentration of chlorophylls, carotenoids, vitamins, and lipids in leaves ( Marschner

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Yiwei Jiang, Eric Watkins, Shuwei Liu, Xiaoqing Yu, and Na Luo

species (ROS), potentially causing oxidative injury to proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Plants have evolved enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems for scavenging and detoxifying ROS ( Mittler, 2002 ). In enzymatic systems, superoxide

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Michele R. Warmund

cells were present near the distal position of the larval chamber and five layers of cells at the proximal part of the gall in cross-section. Large, intact nutritive cells had large nuclei and nucleoli ( Fig. 8 ). Numerous lipid bodies, mitochondria, and

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Chaim Frenkel and Michael Eskin


Hydroperoxide levels were determined in aqueous and lipid extracts from fruit of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) at 6 different stages of ripening. An increase in the levels of peroxides in both the aqueous and the lipid fractions was associated with the upsurge in ethylene evolution. The changes in peroxides in the lipid fraction corresponded to the changes in the activity of lypoxygenase. Peroxides may constitute some of the active oxygen forms occurring in vivo which are required for the synthesis of ethylene in fruit.