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C. Navarro, R. Fernández-Escobar and M. Benlloch

A low-pressure injection method for introducing chemical formulations into trees is presented. The apparatus consists of a plastic injector and a tube providing a pressure of 60 to 80 kPa, which is below the injurious level for the xylem. The efficiency of the method was determined by injecting PTS, a marker of apoplastic flux dye solutions, and rubidium chloride into young trees, main scaffolds, or tree trunks. The depth of the hole drilled) and the number of injections necessary to distribute the solutions was also determined. The injected solutions moved mainly upward through the older rings of the xylem, suggesting that uptake is directly controlled by the transpiration rate. A single injection was enough to distribute solutions in scaffolds with a diameter of 8 cm, but two injections were necessary for 17-cm-diameter trunks. According to the results, the injection method was effective in introducing chemicals into olive (Olea europaea L.) trees. The method is easy to use, safe and economical and does not involve special equipment. Chemical name used: trisodium, 3-hydroxi-5,8,10-pyrenetrisulfonate (PTS).

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Eddo Rugini

In the olive Olea europaea (L.), the polyamides (PAs), putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, when added exogenously at a concentration of 1 mm in the in vitro rooting medium, combined with 5 μm auxin concentration, promoted early rooting and increased the final rooting percentage and the number of roots per explant. The effect was less evident in olive explants rooted with the basal blanching method; thin-layer chromatography of total endogenous PAs in `these explants revealed lower levels on day 2 compared with controls, while by day 5 PA concentrations in both had fallen to similar levels. Furthermore, putrescine decreased the pH of the medium by 0.5 units around the explants. PAs had little effect on apple Malus pumila (Mill.) and no effect on almond Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb and pistachio Pistacia vera (L.). There were also some positive effects observed, but only in olive, when rooting was induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes in auxin-free medium. Few plantlets showed agropine-positive roots.

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L. Rallo and G.C. Martin

Experiments with olive (Olea europaea L.) shoot explants were carried out to determine the influence of winter chilling on the release of axillary buds from dormancy. This investigation was designed to explore an alternative explanation for the confusing concept surrounding the role of chilling in olive floral induction. Leafy explants collected from 10 Nov. to 6 Mar. were grown in a greenhouse under mist at 13/24C (night/day) and in a growth chamber at 10/21C (night/day) to determine the end of dormancy. Growth of floral buds from leafy explants was first recorded from 5 Jan. samples. After that date the percentage of developing floral buds and rate of their development increased. Floral bud abscission, increase in bud fresh weight, and simultaneous decrease of relative bud dry weight were associated with growth initiation of floral buds. Manual defoliation of adult trees during the period of shoot explant collection indicated that leaves play a critical role in development once the floral buds had completed dormancy. Supplementary chilling of isolated shoots collected 20 Jan. demonstrated that 7.2C was sufficient to complete chilling requirements, while 12.5C allowed both the completion of chilling requirements and the proper temperature for subsequent floral bud growth. Winter chilling is required to release previously initiated floral buds from dormancy, and we question the previous concept that the role of chilling is to induce olive floral initiation.

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Francisca López-Granados, M. Teresa Gómez-Casero, José M. Peña-Barragán, Montserrat Jurado-Expósito and Luis García-Torres

In Spain, water for agricultural use represents about 85% of the total water demand, and irrigated crop production constitutes a major contribution to the country's economy. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the potential of multispectral reflectance and seven vegetation indices in the visible and near-infrared spectral range for discriminating and classifying bare soil and several horticultural irrigated crops at different dates. This is the first step of a broader project with the overall goal of using satellite imagery with high spatial and multispectral resolutions for mapping irrigated crops to improve agricultural water use. On-ground reflectance data of bare soil and annual herbaceous crops [garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), bean (Vicia faba), maize (Zea mays), potato (Solanum tuberosum), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), melon (Cucumis melo), watermelon (Citrillus lanatus), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)], perennial herbaceous crops [alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)], deciduous trees [plum (Prunus spp.)], and non-deciduous trees [citrus (Citrus spp.) and olive (Olea europaea)] were collected using a handheld field spectroradiometer in spring, early summer, and late summer. Three classification methods were applied to discriminate differences in reflectance between the different crops and bare soil: stepwise discriminant analysis, and two artificial neural networks: multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function. On any of the sampling dates, the highest degree of accuracy was achieved with the MLP neural network, showing 89.8%, 91.1%, and 96.4% correct classification in spring, early summer, and late summer, respectively. The classification matrix from the MLP model using cross-validation showed that most crops discriminated in spring and late summer were 100% classifiable. For future works, we would recommend acquiring two multispectral satellite images taken in spring and late summer for monitoring and mapping these irrigated crops, thus avoiding costly field surveys.

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Hava F. Rapoport, Giacomo Costagli and Riccardo Gucci

Water deficit was applied between 4 and 9 weeks after full bloom by withholding irrigation from 3-year-old Olea europaea L. (`Leccino') plants grown in 2 L containers in a greenhouse. At 6, 8, and 22 weeks after full bloom (AFB), fruit were sampled for fresh weight and volume determinations, and then fixed for anatomical studies. Structural observations and measurements were performed on transverse sections at the point of widest fruit diameter using image analysis. Water deficit applied between 4 and 9 weeks AFB produced a significant decrease in predawn leaf water potential, which reached minimum values of -3.1 MPa. The applied water deficit reduced fruit fresh weight and volume at 8 and 22 weeks AFB. Fruit transverse area of the water deficit treatment was 50%, 33%, and 70% of the irrigated one at the 6-, 8-, and 22-week sampling dates, respectively. Mesocarp growth occurred for both irrigated and water deficit plants between 8 and 22 weeks AFB. At 22 weeks AFB differences between treatments were significant for mesocarp transverse area, but not for endocarp area. Mesocarp cell size, indicated by area, was significantly different between treatments at 8 and 22 weeks AFB. However, the mesocarp cell number was similar for both treatments at all times, and most mesocarp cells were produced by 6 weeks AFB. The growth of endocarp area showed the greatest shift in timing in response to the early water deficit. Ninety percent of endocarp growth had occurred by 8 weeks AFB in the irrigated treatment, but only 40% when the deficit irrigation treatment was imposed.

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Alfonso Moriana, Francisco Orgaz, Miguel Pastor and Elias Fereres

Irrigation is one of the most important means of increasing olive oil production but little information exists on the responses of olive to variable water supply. Five different irrigation strategies, full irrigation, rain fed, and three deficit irrigation treatments were compared from 1996 to 1999, in Cordoba, southern Spain, to characterize the response of a mature olive (Olea europaea L. `Picual') orchard to irrigation. Crop evapotranspiration (ETc) varied from less than 500 mm in the rain fed to ≈900 mm under full irrigation. The deficit irrigation treatments had ETc values that ranged from 60% to 80% of full ETc depending on the year and treatment. Water relations, and oil content and trunk growth measurements allowed for the interpretation of yield responses to water deficits. In a deficit irrigation treatment that concentrated all its ETc deficit in the summer, stem water potential (Ψx) decreased to -7 MPa but recovered quickly in the fall, while in the treatment that applied the same ET deficit progressively, Ψx was never below -3.8 MPa. Minimum Ψx in the rain fed treatment reached -8 MPa. Yield (Y) responses as a function of ETc were calculated for biennial yield data, given the alternate bearing habit of the olive; the equation are: Y = -16.84 + 0.063 ET -0.035 × 10-3 ET2, and Y = -2.78 + 0.011 ET - 0.006 × 10-3 ET2, for fruit and oil production respectively, with responses to ET deficits being similar for sustained and regulated deficit irrigation. The yield response to a deficit treatment that was fully irrigated during the bearing year and rain fed in the nonbearing year, was less favorable than that observed in the other two deficit treatments.

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Maria J. Berenguer, Paul M. Vossen, Stephen R. Grattan, Joseph H. Connell and Vito S. Polito

A comparative study was conducted to evaluate the influence of seven different levels of irrigation applied to `Arbequina I-18' olive (Olea europaea L.) trees grown in a super-high-density orchard (1,656 trees/ha) in the Sacramento Valley of California. Water was applied differentially by drip irrigation at rates of 15%, 25%, 40%, 57%, 71%, 89%, and 107% evapotranspiration (ETc) in 2002, and 28%, 33%, 55%, 74%, 93%, 117%, and 140% ETc in 2003. Each treatment was replicated three times. Olives were harvested on two different dates each year from each of 21 plots. Three of four harvest dates showed a decrease in maturity index with increasing irrigation levels. Oils were made from olive samples collected from each plot and analyzed for oil quality parameters. Total polyphenol levels and oxidative stability decreased as the trees received more water, especially for the three lowest irrigation treatment levels in 2002, but few differences were noted between treatments in 2003 when all the trees were irrigated more heavily. Average oxidative stability was correlated very closely with total polyphenol content with r 2 = 0.98 in 2002 and 0.94 in 2003. In 2002, free fatty acid levels increased and peroxide levels were unchanged, but in 2003, free fatty acid levels were unchanged and peroxide levels decreased in treatments receiving more water. Saturated fatty acids did not significantly change in 2002, due to tree irrigation level. The mono-unsaturated fatty acid levels and oleic–linoleic relationship declined while poly-unsaturated fatty acid levels increased in 2002 with increased irrigation. In 2003, there was no notable difference in the ratio of mono to poly unsaturated fatty acid levels. The individual fatty acid most consistently affected by more irrigation water was stearic, which decreased in both years. Total sterol content (mg·kg–1), percentages of cholesterol and erythrodiol were significantly influenced by tree irrigation levels, but increased in one year and either decreased or were unchanged the next. Oil sensory properties of fruitiness, bitterness, and pungency all declined in oils made from trees receiving more water. The lowest irrigation levels produced oils that were characterized by excessive bitterness, very high pungency, and woody, herbaceous flavors. Intermediate irrigation levels (33% to 40% ETc) produced oils with balance, complexity, and characteristic artichoke, grass, green apple, and some ripe fruit flavors. Higher irrigation levels lowered oil extractability and produced relatively bland oils with significantly less fruitiness and almost no bitterness or pungency.

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Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Thomais-Evelina Kapsali, Maria-Pinelopi Kaltsidi, Liebao Han and Shuxia Yin

Several locally available materials were tested to create an optimized growth substrate for arid and semiarid Mediterranean extensive green roofs. The study involved a four-step screening procedure. At the first step, 10 different materials were tested including pumice (Pum), crushed tiles grade 1–2 mm (T1–2), 2–4 mm (T2–4), 5–8 mm (T5–8), 5–16 mm (T5–16), and 4–22 mm (T4–22); crushed bricks of either 2–4 mm (B2–4) or 2–8 mm (B2–8); a thermally treated clay (TC); and zeolite (Zeo). All materials were tested for their particle size distribution, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC). The results were compared for compliance with existing guidelines for extensive green roof construction. From the first step, the most promising materials were shown to include Pum, Zeo, T5–8, T5–16, and TC, which were then used at the second stage to develop mixtures between them. Tests at the second stage included particle size distribution and moisture potential curves. Pumice mixed with TC provided the best compliance with existing guidelines in relation to particle size distribution, and it significantly increased moisture content compared with the mixes of Pum with T5–8 and T5–16. As a result, from the second screening step, the best performing substrate was Pum mixed with TC and Zeo. The third stage involved the selection of the most appropriate organic amendment of the growing substrate. Three composts having different composition and sphagnum peat were analyzed for their chemical and physical characteristics. The composts were a) garden waste compost (GWC), b) olive (Olea europaea L.) mill waste compost (OMWC), and c) grape (Vitis vinifera L.) marc compost (GMC). It was found that the peat-amended substrate retained increased moisture content compared with the compost-amended substrates. The fourth and final stage involved the evaluation of the environmental impact of the final mix with the four different organic amendments based on their first flush nitrate nitrogen (NO3 -N) leaching potential. It was found that GWC and OMWC exhibited increased NO3 -N leaching that initially reached 160 and 92 mg·L−1 of NO3 -N for OMWC and GWC, respectively. By contrast, peat and GMC exhibited minimal NO3 -N leaching that was slightly above the maximum contaminant level of 10 mg·L−1 of NO3 -N (17.3 and 14.6 mg·L−1 of NO3 N for peat and GMC, respectively). The latter was very brief and lasted only for the first 100 and 50 mL of effluent volume for peat and GMC, respectively.

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Susan C. Miyasaka and Randall T. Hamasaki

To determine promising olive (Olea europaea) cultivars for oil production in Hawaii, seven trees each of 10 cultivars (Arbequina, Arbosana, Coratina, Frantoio, Koroneiki, Leccino, Mission, Moraiolo, Pendolino, and Taggiasca) were planted in Feb. and July 2011 at the Lalamilo Experiment station on Hawaii Island (lat. 20.0176°N, long. 155.6827°W, elevation 2700 ft). In addition, two trees each of these 10 cultivars were planted in June 2011, with the exception of Arbequina, which was planted in July 2012, at the Maui Agricultural Research Center in Kula, Maui (lat. 20.7564°N, long. 156.3289°W, elevation 3100 ft). At Lalamilo, after ≈2 years of growth in the field (2013), three cultivars of olives (Arbequina, Arbosana, and Koroneiki) flowered, fruited, and produced oil yields of greater than 20%. These same cultivars flowered and fruited in 2014 and 2015. There was no significant difference among cultivars in fresh weight fruit yield averaged over 2 years (2013 and 2014), ranging from 2.14 to 2.45 kg/tree. During December to March, calculation of chilling hours below 12.5 °C was 141 hours during 2012–13 and 161 hours during 2013–14. The other seven cultivars did not flower and fruit during these 2 years of growth at Lalamilo, perhaps due to a greater requirement for chilling hours. At Kula, after 3 years of growth (2015), nine cultivars of olives with the exception of Moraiolo flowered and fruited. Mean fresh weight fruit yield in 2015 ranged from 0.25 to 22.06 kg/tree for various cultivars grown in Kula, Maui. In 2013, the oil from three cultivars grown at Lalamilo was analyzed for free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide value (PV), ultraviolet absorption for conjugated double bonds, 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), and pyropheophytins (PPP). Oil quality was within the range of extra-virgin olive oil. There is a need to investigate further the effects of temperature and management on flowering and fruiting of olive cultivars grown in Hawaii at various elevations. In particular, ‘Arbequina’, ‘Arbosana’, and ‘Koroneiki’ appear to have a lower requirement for chilling hours than other cultivars tested.

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James O. Denney and George C. Martin

Fruit removal force (FRF) and percent leaf drop (LD) of fruit-bearing olive (Olea europaea L.) shoots were examined 120 hours after being sprayed with ethephon at 600 mg·liter-1 and held under controlled-environmental conditions analogous to those found in the field in California at harvest time in mid-October. FRF was not significantly affected by solution pH, but FRF of all treated shoots was significantly lower than that of the untreated controls. Only at pH 5 was percent LD significantly greater than that of the controls, but, of the shoots treated with ethephon, the lowest percent LD occurred at pH 3. Percent LD after treatment with ethephon at pH 3 was not affected by application time, but FRF was significantly less than the controls' when shoots were treated at 7 am or 12 pm but not at 5 pm or 10 pm. Adding NAA to the ethephon solution raised FRF and adding BA lowered FRF compared to ethephon alone. Adding NAA or BA did not mitigate percent LD significantly. Adding BA advanced anthocyanin production in fruit. Ethephon penetration of rachides was ≈70% that of petioles. Correlation between ethephon penetration of petioles and percent LD was greater than that between penetration of rachides and FRF. Correlation was significant for both tissues only in the 12 pm pH 3 treatment; correlation was also significant for petiole penetration and percent LD at pH 5. Autoradiographic studies of the 14C-ethephon penetration showed no pH effect, greater penetration into petioles than rachides, and that radioactivity was limited largely to intercellular spaces, with accumulation in vascular bundles, especially xylem. Regardless of treatment, FRF and percent LD are negatively correlated (r 2 = 0.615). Mean results to be expected using ethephon as an olive harvest aid under these conditions are an FRF of ≈3 N and a percent LD of ≈15%. The desired low FRF and percent LD were obtained by applying ethephon alone at pH 3 at 7 am. Raising ethephon solution pH does not increase harvest effectiveness. Chemical names used: (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA).