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Miguel Urrestarazu, Isidro Morales, Tommaso La Malfa, Ruben Checa, Anderson F. Wamser, and Juan E. Álvaro

frequently used parameters for the practical control of soilless systems (e.g., Gorbe and Calatayud, 2010 ; Hayward and Long, 1943 ; Urrestarazu et al., 2008b ). No information is available on the effect of the time of application of a fertigation volume

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Abigail R. Debner, Harlene Hatterman-Valenti, and Fumiomi Takeda

appropriate licensing agreements to avoid violating patent laws. Adventitious root production of one-node dormant hardwood FF blackberry cuttings for use in an annual production system had low success rates regardless of the cultivar, auxin application, rate

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Davie M. Kadyampakeni, Kelly T. Morgan, Arnold W. Schumann, and Peter Nkedi-Kizza

citrus production systems in Australia, Chile, South Africa, and Spain ( Carrasco et al., 2003 ; Kruger et al., 2000a , 2000b ; Martinez-Valero and Fernandez, 2004 ) modified for Florida sandy soils. Thus, knowledge of RLD distribution in response to

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Matthew A. Cutulle, Gregory R. Armel, James T. Brosnan, Dean A. Kopsell, William E. Klingeman, Phillip C. Flanagan, Gregory K. Breeden, Jose J. Vargas, Rebecca Koepke-Hill, and Mark A. Halcomb

); however, selective control of broadleaf weeds in ornamental systems is more difficult. In part, challenges derive in that both broadleaf weeds and many desirable ornamentals are both dicotyledonous species with variable sensitivity to postemergence

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Alberto Pardossi and Luca Incrocci

control system for the management of both irrigation and climate in greenhouse production systems. The application of plant-based IS seems more practical and affordable in greenhouse soilless growing systems, where climate and crop are generally more

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Amaya Atucha, Ian A. Merwin, Chandra K. Purohit, and Michael G. Brown

relatively low compared with the losses from ground-applied N fertilizer applications in greater amounts. Literature Cited Atucha, A. Merwin, I.A. Brown, M.G. 2011 Long-term effects of four groundcover management systems in an apple orchard HortScience 46

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John C. Majsztrik, Andrew G. Ristvey, David S. Ross, and John D. Lea-Cox

process uses a risk assessment strategy based on N, P, irrigation application, and surface water runoff risk, not on a crop nutrient removal basis, as is used for agronomic crops ( Lea-Cox and Ross, 2001 ). This process assesses the potential for N and P

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M. Lenny Wells

form of leaf and litter fall may reduce soil temperatures and increase soil moisture in orchard systems. Thus, microbial biomass and nutrient cycling processes are affected by the altered microclimate in orchard and agroforestry systems as compared with

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Sally M. Schneider, Husein A. Ajwa, Thomas J. Trout, and Suduan Gao

others do not. A material can be effective at the point of application, but the fumigant must be distributed throughout the target zone at concentrations sufficient to kill soil pests. Drip application offers advantages such as a closed application system

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Clinton J. Hunnicutt, Andrew W. MacRae, and Vance M. Whitaker

Doohan conducted trials with clopyralid application rates ranging from 25 to 400 g·ha −1 applied as a postharvest spray in a perennial strawberry production system. Common groundsel ( Senecio vulgaris ) control of 82% was achieved when clopyralid was