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Shawn T. Steed, Allison Bechtloff, Andrew Koeser and Tom Yeager

), which might enhance growth, provide beneficial environmental impacts such as reducing fertilizer leaching ( Argo and Biernbaum, 1994 ), and reduce the need for herbicides ( Marble et al., 2017 ). The mulch might also minimize hand labor to remove weeds

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David Granatstein and Kent Mullinix

. 2001, 0.1 kg/tree. Trunk cross-sectional area was calculated from trunk circumference measured 20 cm above the graft union in May 1999 and each October thereafter. Weeds were monitored with three random samples per plot using a 0.25-m 2 hoop

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Deborah Willard and Harlene Hatterman Valenti

straw that has a binding substance added before forming a mat ≈0.5 inch thick. On 15 May 2006, hairy vetch seed was sown at 55 lb/acre and wheat straw was added again to reach the initial depth. Weeds in 2005 were removed on 1 Aug. from all experimental

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Eva García-Méndez, David García-Sinovas, Maximo Becerril, Antońeta De Cal, Paloma Melgarejo, Anselmo Martínez-Treceño, Steven A. Fennimore, Carmen Soria, Juan J. Medina and Jóse M. López-Aranda

among years. Soilborne pathogens (such as Phythophthora cactorum , Verticillium spp., Rhizoctonia spp., Pythium spp., and Fusarium spp.) and weeds are common pests of Spanish strawberry nurseries ( De Cal et al., 2005a ). Alternative fumigants

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Steven A. Fennimore, Milton J. Haar, Rachael E. Goodhue and Christopher Q. Winterbottom

, 1994 ; Larson and Shaw, 2000 ; Strand, 1994 ; Voth, 1989 ; Voth and Bringhurst, 1990 ). Soil fumigation is used to manage soilborne pests, including weeds, and to ensure pest-free planting stock. Beginning approximately 1960, MB became the

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Timothy W. Miller and Carl R. Libbey

July of Year 3. Blossoms are generally selectively harvested in these fields for use as cut flowers in early spring of Years 2 and 3. Paraquat herbicide is commonly used in mid-summer of Year 2 to desiccate weeds and hasten the drying of narcissus

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James T. Brosnan and Gregory K. Breeden

control weeds both pre- and postemergence ( Asakura et al., 2012 ). A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted in Japan to compare weed control efficacy of this controlled-release granular formulation to a granular formulation of bensulfuron

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Gary S. Bañuelos and Bradley D. Hanson

from canola and mustard seeds from plants grown in the SJV produced biofuel blends that were used for operating diesel-powered equipment. He subsequently tested the residual mustard seed meal as a potential biofumigant for inhibiting weeds in greenhouse

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Emily E. Braun, Sarah Taylor Lovell, Mohammad Babadoost, Frank Forcella, Sharon Clay, Daniel Humburg and Sam E. Wortman

production, but weeds can emerge through any uncovered space, including crop holes or tears in the plastic ( Schonbeck, 1999 ; Wortman, 2015 ). Plastic films increase soil temperature ( Lamont, 2005 ) and increase water use efficiency ( Moreno and Moreno

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Hamid Reza Rajablarijani, Bahram Mirshekari, Majid AghaAlikhani, Varahram Rashidi and Farhad Farahvash

Changes in sowing date can strongly affect plants development ( Hay, 1986 ). Sowing dates can be manipulated to avoid the periods of greatest risk from pests, weeds, and diseases and hence increase yield of the crop ( Harper, 1999 ). Many