Heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and bird-of-paradise (Strelitzia reginae) inflorescences have similar stem structures and postharvest handling regimes. Inflorescences, especially heliconia, should be harvested in the morning while still turgid, and at the most suitable stage of development which varies with the species, its proposed use, and market requirements. Treatments that extend postharvest vase life, either or both enhance water uptake or prevent water loss and provide an exogenous energy source. Use of the most suitable temperature for shipping and storage prolongs vase life. Heliconia should be shipped and stored at >10 °C (50.0 °F), red ginger >12 °C (53.6 °F), and bird-of-paradise at >8 °C (46.4 °F). Sucrose (10% w/v), citric acid [150 mg·L-1 (ppm)] and 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (250 mg·L-1) are major chemicals used in pulsing and holding solution for bird-of-paradise. Holding solutions for red ginger are similar except 2% (w/v) sucrose is recommended. The response of heliconia inflorescences to different pulsing and holding solutions has been shown to be negligible. A 200-mg·L-1 benzyladenine spray extends the vase life of red ginger and heliconia. Hot water treatment of red ginger at 49 °C (120.2 °F) and 50 °C (122.0 °F) for 12 to 15 min extends postharvest vase life, kills most of the pests that infest red ginger, and reduces the geotropic response. The major postharvest problems are saprophytic mold on bird-of-paradise, negative geotropic response of red ginger, and insect infestation of all three flowers. There is no reported method to control the postharvest nectar and slime production on bird-of-paradise that provides a substrate for saprophytic mold growth. Dipping inflorescences in benomyl or thiobendazole (TBZ) at 200 mg·L-1 does help control postharvest mold growth in bird-of-paradise and heliconia. Compared to most temperate flowers, there is a need for greater understanding of morphological and physiological factors that limit the vase life of heliconia, red ginger and bird-of-paradise flowers.
regarding the use of tap or deionized (DI) water ( Nowak and Rudnicki, 1990 ; Sacalis, 1993 ). In some studies, tap water produced the shortest vase life ( Kamataka, 2003 ), but in others, it resulted in a longer vase life than DI water ( van Meeteren et al
-like inflorescence (spadix), which are carried on a long, slender peduncle. Cut anthuriums are also known for their especially long vase life, depending on the variety, season, and cultivation conditions ( Elibox and Umaharan, 2010 ; Farrell et al., 2012 ; Paull et
The respiration of flowers of stock [Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br.] had a Q10 of 6.9 between 0 and 10 °C. Simulated transport for 5 days resulted in marked reduction in the vase life of flowers transported at 10 °C and above. Flower opening, water uptake, and vase life of the flowers increased somewhat in a vase solution containing 50 ppm NaOCl, and considerably in a commercial preservative containing glucose and a bactericide. Exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in rapid desiccation and abscission of the petals, effects that were prevented by pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Even in the absence of exogenous ethylene, the life of the flowers was significantly increased by inhibiting ethylene action using pretreatment with silver thiosulfate (STS) or 1-MCP. STS was more effective than 1-MCP in maintaining flower quality.
The cut rose, grown as a single-stemmed crop, resembles a potted plant and can be adapted to transportable bench systems. Potentially, this cultivation method could increase control of rose development, flexibility of production and produce, and automation of difficult or laborious cultural operations. Synchronous growth and flowering is considered important. The effects of increased quantum irradiation integral and plant density on shoot growth, fresh biomass production, and bloom quality were studied as single-stemmed rose plants (Rosa hybrida L.) `Kordapa' Lambada, `Tanettahn' Manhattan Blue, `Tanorelav' Red Velvet, and `Sweet Promise' Sonia grown under 20 hours photoperiods at 23 °C average air temperature. Plants were grown in rockwool cubes on ebb and flood benches irrigated with a complete nutrient solution, and were supplied with carbon dioxide at 1000 μmol·mol-1. Increased the daily quantum integral from 17.8 to 21.0 mol·m-2·d-1 increased fresh biomass efficiency, stem diameter, and specific fresh mass while number of nodes, number of five-leaflet-leaves, plastochron value, and stem length at anthesis decreased. Fresh mass at anthesis was not affected by the treatments. Increasing plant population density from 100 to 178 plants/m2 increased stem length at visible flower bud, and reduced both fresh biomass efficiency and specific fresh mass. These effects are suggested to be related to assimilate supply and translocation, and light perception of the roses. High quantum integral slightly reduced flower diameter but in general, quantum integral or plant density did not affect bloom quality or vase life. Use of preservative floral solution generally improved rose flower diameter and vase life. In Lambada increased light quantum integral prolonged vase life, but use of preservative solution did not. The cultivars Sonia and Red Velvet required 19 to 20 days from cutting/planting until onset of bud growth, 29 to 34 days until visible flower bud, and 39 to 49 days until anthesis. Red Velvet roses were ≈60 cm long at anthesis, and had larger stem diameter and growth rate, accumulated more fresh biomass, were most efficient producing fresh biomass, and had higher specific fresh mass among the cultivars. Light quantum integral is suggested to be used as a means to synchronize single-stemmed rose plant development.
-Elmer atomic absorption spectrophotometer (PerkinElmer 3030 Inc., Waltham, MA) was finally used to measure the calcium content of the flowering stems and their leaves ( Volpin and Elad, 1991 ). Vase life and relative fresh weight. To perform postharvest
Incremental increases in temperature from 14 to 22 to 30C resulted in linear increases in stem length and node number and decreases in stem diameter and stem strength of Oxypetalum caeruleum (D. Don.) Decne. Higher temperatures also resulted in additional flower abortion, reduced time to flowering, and fewer flowering stems per inflorescence. Reduction in the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) from 695 to 315 μmol·s-1·m-2 had similar effects as increasing the temperature on vegetative characteristics, but had little effect on reproductive ones. The rate of stem elongation was greatest at low PPF for all temperatures and at high temperature for all PPF treatments. Net photosynthesis rose between 14 and 22C and declined at 30C for all PPF treatments. Long photoperiods (12 or 14 hours) resulted in longer internodes, longer stems, and more flowers per cyme than short photoperiods (8 or 10 hours), but photoperiod had little effect on flowering time. Treatments to reduce latex coagulant and silver thiosulfate treatments had no significant effect on vase life.
Many post-production factors affect vase life of cut flowers including developmental stage at harvest, temperature during the vase period, water loss, and various aspects of the vase solution such as sucrose levels, microbial populations, pH
, but extreme temperatures within that range can stress plants resulting in pest/disease problems, unacceptably long production times, or reduced inflorescence quality ( Dole and Wilkins, 2005 ). A number of factors influence vase life after harvest
., 2000 ; Sane et al., 2007 ; Vriezen et al., 2000 ). Wintersweet, which blossoms particularly in winter, is one of the important woody cut ornamental flowers with high economic value that thrives in central south and southwest China. The vase life of