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Seeds of celery, spinach, onion, cress, water cress, iceberg lettuce, Great Lakes lettuce, cabbage, tomato, sweet corn and celery were pre-treated with 0.1 μM/g seed of both ABA and analogs of ABA. The chemicals were dissolved in a mixture of methanol:hexane (9:1/v:v) and applied to the seeds for approximately 3 minutes. The solvent was removed from the seeds within 5 minutes by rotary evaporation under reduced pressure. Effects on petri plate germination and soil emergence were monitored daily at 5, 10 and 15°C. The methanol/hexane solvent alone improved spinach seed emergence at 10°C from 10% to 100% and from 50% to 90% at 15°C in celery. Certain ABA analogs reduced time to 50% emergence in celery by at least 7 days at 15°C. Two ABA analogs synchronized emergence in celery and effect was temperature-dependent. One analog improved seed germination in tomato from 15% to 90% at 10°C. In most cases treatment effects on radicle germination on petri plates was not a good indicator of treatment effects on emergence from a soil based system.

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Seeds of Lupinus havardii Wats. (Big Bend bluebonnet), a potential cut flower crop, were subjected to a variety of scarification and temperature treatments. Without scarification, only 10-20% of the seeds germinated within one week. Germination percentages increased sigmoidally as scarification time in concentrated sulfuric acid increased. Nearly 100% germination was obtained within one week after seeds were placed in sulfuric acid for 120 min. Nicking the seed coat with a razor blade also resulted in near 100% germination. Soaking the seed in water for 24 h failed to enhance germination. Soaking the seed in ethanol, methanol, or acetone for 2 h likewise failed to enhance germination. Total germination of scarified seed was >90% between 21 and 33C within 28 h. The most rapid germination occurred within a range of 24-29C. Above or below this range germination was delayed. At 35C, seedling, mortality was observed and total germination was reduced to <50%. Our data indicate that seed of this species requires scarification for optimum germination but the seed can germinate over a relatively wide temperature range.

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Abstract

Soaking palm seed in water for 1 to 21 days prior to planting reduces the number of days required for germination (3). Loomis (1) found soaking seeds of Acrocomia scierocarpa and Astrocaryum mexicanum palms for 2 to 3 weeks following hot water scarification at 100°C for 3 min hastened seed germination. Rees (3) reported soaking Copernicia cerifera (Mart.) seeds in water for 7 days at 38° to 42° also accelerated germination after planting. Presoaking Alexandra palm [Archontophoenix alexandrite (F.J. Muell.) H. Wendl & Drude] seed in water for 24 to 72 hr at 25° was reported by Nagao and Sakai (2) to stimulate germination. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of temperature during a 7-day preplanting period on imbibed and nonimbibed seed and to compare seed soaking in water with moist peatmoss on germination percentages and numbers of days required to achieve 50% final germination.

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Little scientific information is available describing morphological development of pawpaw during seed germination. To provide this information, a study was designed to outline important developmental stages and describe seedling characteristics within each stage. Stratified pawpaw seeds were sown in vermiculite and germinated at 25°C in a growth chamber. Ten seedlings were randomly chosen and destructively harvested at 5-day intervals starting at radicle protrusion. Length (mm), fresh and dry weight, and percentage of total dry weight were determined for seedling components. Pawpaw seeds have a small rudimentary embryo with all food reserves stored in a ruminate endosperm. Dry weight measurements showed a dramatic reallocation of reserves from the storage tissue to developing seedling parts. Initial embryo length was less than 3 mm, but within 70 days seedlings exceeded 350 mm. Twelve days after planting, simultaneous radicle and cotyledon growth occurred (3.4 and 3.0 mm, respectively), but neither hypocotyl nor epicotyl was visible. Radicle protrusion was observed at 15 days with radicle, cotyledon and hypocotyl lengths increasing to 4.4, 4.0, and 3.2 mm, respectively. Endosperm comprised 99.1% of total dry weight at this stage. The hypocotyl hook emerged after 30 days and endosperm comprised 76.1% of total dry weight. Cotyledons reached maximum length (29.0 mm) at day 40 and the epicotyl was discernible. At 55 days, the seed coat containing cotyledons and residual endosperm abscised and the average radicle, hypocotyl and epicotyl lengths were 182.0, 61.1, and 7.3 mm, respectively. It is suggested that the cotyledons primary function is absorption of food reserves from the endosperm for transfer to the developing seedling.

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( Bernstein and Ayers, 1953 ; Maas and Hoffman, 1977 ). To date, there have been few evaluations of the salinity tolerance of carrot during the seed germination stage ( Kahouli et al., 2014 ; Rode et al., 2012 ; Schmidhalter and Oertli, 1991 ). These

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A study was conducted on various peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] cultivars to determine the relationships among seed germination, seedling survival, seedling rosetting, fruit development period (FDP), and percent dry weight of the ovule (PDO). Germination and survival increased rapidly between 80 and 100 days of FDP, corresponding to an increase in mean PDO from 16% to 50%. Germination and survival leveled off after 105 days of FDP at >85%, corresponding to a mean PDO of 64%. Rosetting was high among seedlings for cultivars with FDP <110 days, but dropped rapidly as FDP increased. PDO was found to be a better indicator of seed germinability and seedling survival than FDP.

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differences. No seeds germinated in light after 12 months of storage, and no seeds germinated in darkness after 6, 9, or 12 months of storage. Cultivars: Kashgar Akeqishiliu (I), Yecheng Suanshiliu (II), Hotan CeLe1#shiliu (III), and Turpan Suanshiliu (IV

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under optimal conditions is required for embryo maturation, and even then seed germination by using conventional methods is very poor ( Hu, 1975 ; Hu et al., 1979 ; Ives, 1923 ). This fact constitutes a serious inconvenience for breeding programs

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.L. 1962 Revision of the genus Ptelea (Rutaceae) Brittonia 14 1 45 Czabator, F.J. 1962 Germination value: An index combining speed and completeness of pine seed germination For. Sci. 8 386 396 Dirr, M.A. 1998 Manual of woody landscape plants: Their

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Lupinus havardii and L. texensis are two commercially important species of lupines (bluebonnets) in Texas. There is no current information for the storage requirements of these two bluebonnet species seeds. A study was undertaken to examine the effects of relative humidity, temperature, and scarification on seed germinability. Seeds of the two bluebonnet species were stored under five relative humidity treatments (11%, 23%, 52%, 75%, and 95%) and two temperature treatments (3°C or 22°C) either scarified or nonscarified in factorial combination. Seed samples were removed monthly. Nonscarified seed were scarified and all seed were placed in a seed germination chamber and germinated in petri dishes containing moistened filter paper. All samples of seed stored under 95% relative humidity were lost to seed-borne contamination. Germinability of scarified seed of both species decreased within 5 months in the 22°C/75% RH treatment. Other treatments had no effect on germinability during 7 months of seed storage.

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