This investigation documents the key anatomical features in embryo development of Cypripedium formosanum Hayata, in association with the ability of embryos to germinate in vitro, and examines the effects of culture media and seed pretreatments on seed germination. A better understanding of zygotic embryogenesis for the Cypripedium L. species would provide insights into subsequent germination events and aid in the in vitro propagation of these endangered species. In seeds collected at 60 days after pollination (DAP), soon after fertilization, no germination was recorded. The best overall germination was found at 90 DAP (≈70%), at which time early globular to globular embryos with a single-celled suspensors can be observed. After 135 DAP, the seeds germinated poorly. At this time the inner integument shrinks and forms a tight layer, which encloses the embryo, the so-called “carapace.” Using Nile red stain, a cuticular substance was detected in the carapace, which may play a role in the impermeability of the mature seed and may help the seeds survive in the stringent environment. At maturity (after 210 DAP), the embryo proper has an average size of eight cells along its length and six cells across the width. Lipids and proteins are the main storage products within the embryo. To improve seed germination, experiments were conducted to test the suitability of various media and pretreatments of seeds. When different media were used, except for the Harvais medium at 120 DAP, there was no significant difference in seed germination at three different developmental stages tested. Soaking mature seeds in 1% NaOCl or treating them with ultrasound may slightly increase the germination percentage. For seed germination, our results indicate that the timing of seed collection outweighs the composition of medium and the seed pretreatments.
Yung-I Lee, Nean Lee, Edward C. Yeung, and Mei-Chu Chung
Moo R. Huh, Beyoung H. Kwack, and Leonard P. Perry
In this experiment, the effects of salinity from 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 5.0 % NaCl on Hibiscus syriacus L. and Hibiscus hamabo Sieb. & Zucc. seed germination with various temperature and Ca treatments was investigated in petri dishes with 10 ml of distilled water or with the appropriate saline solution. At 11 days after treatment, the highest germination rate was obtained at 20C with H. syriacus and 25C with H. hamabo without NaCl and Ca treatments. At 25C, only H. hamabo seeds germinated with 1% NaCl, with dry and fresh weight increasing as Ca concentration increased. With 0.5% NaCl treatment, the germination rate of H. hamabo and H. syriacus increased as Ca concentrations (0.0, 13.35, and 133.5 mM) increased. Without NaCl treatments, hypocotyl and leaf length and width of H. syriacus were longer than those of H. hamabo; with NaCl treatments, the inverse was true.
N. Wartidiningsih and Robert L. Geneve
Germination was evaluated in six seed lots of purple coneflower purchased from four different seed companies. Standard germination percent ranged from 28% to 90% depending on the seed lot. For seed collected in 1989, seed size and stage of development of the seed at harvest could not account for the wide variability in seed germination observed in the purchased seed lots. preconditioning the seed with either cold stratification (10°C for 10 days) or osmotic priming (PEG or salt solution at -5 bars for 5 days) increased the rate of germination and the overall percent germination for all seed lots and dramatically improved germination in the poor germinating seed lots. Preconditioning appears to overcome either a shallow physiological dormancy or compensates for seeds with poor vigor or quality. In either case, seed preconditioning drastically improved seed germination (rate and percent) in greenhouse and field tests for purple coneflower.
D. H. Scott and A. D. Draper
Irregular germination and delayed emergence of blueberry, strawberry, blackberry and raspberry seedlings have been noted by various investigators. Seed treatments such as afterripening (1) and acid scarification of strawberry seed (2) improved rapidity of germination, but neither treatment fully overcame the delay in seed germination. In a study with blueberry seed, after-ripening did not improve germination (2). Sporadic germination and delayed emergence of seedlings complicates a breeding program when uniform size of seedlings is desired.
G. C. Sharples
Activated carbon stimulated seed germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in soil and vermiculite. Stimulation was strongly dependent upon the moisture potential. Germinating seeds were shown to excrete an inhibitor into the micro-environment which cannot diffuse away rapidly at moisture potentials near the soil field capacity or at analogous potentials in vermiculite. Increasing the moisture potential or adding activated carbon caused rapid removal of inhibitor from the seed micro-environment.
John M. Smagula, Michael Michaud, and Paul R. Hepler
A light requirement for improved seed germination of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) was partially overcome by GA treatments; GA at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 ppm stimulated early germination of seeds kept in the dark. The germination rate of seeds exposed to an 8 hour light period was also enhanced by GA treatments. Continuous exposure to concentrations above 1000 ppm resulted in abnormally curled seedlings with necrotic root tips.
M. A. Nagao, K. Kanegawa, and W. S. Sakai
Scarification and pre-soak treatments with water or 1000 ppm gibberellic acid (GA) accelerated seed germination of Alexandra palm [Archontophoenix alexandrae (F. J. Muell.) H. Wendl. & Drude]. Macarthur palm [Ptychosperma macarthurii (H. Wendl.) Nichols] germination was accelerated following scarification or pre-soaking in 1000 ppm GA, however, in both species greatest acceleration was obtained when the scarification and GA treatments were combined. Germination time of Macarthur palm was also reduced by 6 weeks when sown in beds heated to 27° ± 1°C.
Paul H. Henry and Frank A. Blazich
Two experiments investigated the relationship of light and temperature in seed germination of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.]. Irradiation during the warm portion of 9/15 hr thermoperiod of 20/10C and 30/20C increased germination percentages after 42 days, and the degree of stimulation depended on the timing of the light exposures. A 1-hr exposure was most effective during the latter part of the warm portion of the thermoperiods, and varying the time of irradiation had the greatest effect at 20/10C. The involvement of phytochrome in this photomorphogenic response was ascertained by demonstration of red/far-red reversibility.
A. L. Hathcock, P. H. Dernoeden, J. J. Murray, and D. J. Wehner
The adhesives gum arabic, Methocel A-15, Pelgel, Solka Floe, and 2 experimental materials were evaluated for their effect on germination and early seedling growth of ‘Kentucky 31’ tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and ‘Adelphi’ Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) and for their ability to retain a limestone seed coating. The adhesives did not adversely affect seed germination, turf quality, and early growth of seedlings of either species. Seedling growth of ‘Adelphi’, however, was enhanced by Methocel A-15 when compared to the control. Adhesive effectiveness for the retention of a limestone seed coating was in the order: Methocel A-15 > Pelgel > Solka Floe > AP-1 = AP-2.
Ann E. Fagan, Michael A. Dirr, and F. A. Pokorny
Depulped seeds of Liriope muscari (Decne.) L. H. Bailey pretreated with GA3 and/or kinetin and placed at 21°C for warm stratification, showed increased germination over unpulped seeds. Germination rates ranged from 87 to 100%. Identical growth regulator treatments resulted in no germination when the depulped seeds were cold stratified (5°C). Unpulped seed, pre-soaked in water for 24 hours or not soaked and given warm stratification germinated 38 and 25%, respectively. This suggested that the inhibition in unpulped seed is influenced by a water soluble inhibitor in the fruit wall.