The heritability of fall leaf abscission and spring bloom date were estimated in a peach breeding stock recently infused with genes of divergent evolutionary origin. One of the two recent progenitors of this breeding stock was evergreen. The other had a high chilling requirement. The heritability of full-bloom date in this breeding stock was estimated to be 0.60 ± 0.08 SD, under the assumption of no outcrossing, and 0.67 ± 0.08 s d, under the assumption of 30% random mating. The heritability of the percentage of leaves abscised by 18 Nov. 1988 was estimated to be 0.33 ± 0.08, under the assumption of no outcrossing, and 0.47 ± 0.08, under the assumption of 30% random mating. The heritability of the percentage of leaves abscised, estimated from data collected on 14 Nov. 1989, was 0.49 ± 0.08, under the assumption of no outcrossing, and 0.55 ± 0.08, under the assumption of 30% random mating. The phenotypic correlation between date of full bloom and percentage of leaves abscised in the following November was estimated to be 0.21; 0.18 t(0.05) > 0.21 > 0.26 t(oo.1). Apparently, these traits readily could be genetically manipulated to circumvent the freeze damage that leads to susceptibility to Cytospora and related disease organisms.
Xurong Tang and Peter M.A. Tigerstedt
Eight characters relating to flowering and maturity, berry yield, and winter hardiness were estimated on the basis of intersubspecific or interprovenance hybrids to determine heterosis, heritability, and genetic and phenotypic correlations in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). Two provenances of ssp. rhamnoides, one of Finnish (Fin) and one of Danish (Dan) origin, were dominant to ssp. sinensis and Russian derived provenances (ssp. turkestanica) for most characters related to flowering or maturity. This tendency for dominance or overdominance also extended to berry yield and winter hardiness, except for hybrids between Finnish origins and Siberian (ssp. mongolica) origins. The start of maturity (Ms) and half maturity (Mh) showed the highest heritabilities (h2 = 0.88 and 0.81, respectively). The hybrids were matroclinal, suggesting that Ms and Mh may be sex-linked or cytoplasmically inherited characters. Winter hardiness was the trait with the lowest heritability (h2 = 0.02), suggesting that the climate at the testing site was not severe enough to differentiate variation among half sibs or full sibs derived from Fin x Dan, which on average proved hardier than the native parental provenance Fin. Full maturity (Mf) showed a moderate heritability but was stable across 2 years (rB = 1). High genetic correlations among Mf, Ms, and Mh (rG = 0.94, 0.96, and 1.00, respectively) suggest that these characters were controlled by the same genes. Yield showed a negative genetic correlation with all characters pertaining to flowering and maturity, indicating that selection for early flowering or early maturity should result in a gain in yield.
W. L. Summers and S. Honma
A comparison of inheritance patterns and heritability estimates from a NCII crossing model which included green and red cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. (Capitata group) indicated differences between green × green and red × green crosses. Green × green crosses exhibit dominance for early maturity, large head weight, small non-wrapper leaf weight and small stalk weight while red × green crosses exhibit the opposite dominance pattern.
Carlos D. Fear, F. I. Lauer, J. J. Luby, R. L. Stucker, and Cecil Stushnoff
Genetic variance components, narrow sense heritability, and combining ability effects of parents were determined for several traits from analysis of a partial diallel cross involving 17 parents. Parents included several Vaccinium species and interspecific hybrids. For fall growth cessation, general combining ability (GCA) effects were variable from year to year, and heritability was low. Variance due to GCA was more important than specific combining ability (SCA) variance for winter injury in each of the years. The heritability estimate over years was low for winter injury, although individual year estimates were higher. Lowbush parents had high GCA effects for winter injury in years with snow cover but low estimates for years without snow cover. Off-season flowering was observed in some progenies in both years studied. Certain V. angustifolium Ait. parents had high GCA effects for the occurrence of off-season flowering. The heritability estimate for off-season flowering in combined years was 0.47. Variation due to years and to GCA × year interaction was significant for all characters studied.
W. L. Summers and S. Honma
A comparison of inheritance patterns and heritability estimates from a NCII crossing model which included green and red cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group, indicated differences between green × green and red × green crosses. Green × green crosses exhibited dominance for few non-wrapper leaves, greater efficiency index, and smaller leaf size while red × green crosses showed the opposite dominance pattern.
Alfred Jones, M. G. Hamilton, and P. D. Dukes
A parent-offspring test of 21 sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) and 25 open-pollinated offspring from each provided heritability estimates (h2 ± SE) for root fiber (0.47 ± 0.04), weight (0.41 ± 0.04, shape (0.50 ± 0.05), cracking (0.37 ± 0.04), and sprouting (0.37 ± 0.02). These characters were sufficiently independent to allow selection of one, or of any combination simultaneously, without adverse effects on the others.
M. H. Dickson and M. A. Boettger
Semi-hard seed (SHS) in beans is defined as dry seed which does not imbibe water during a 24 hour soak, but which will gain moisture rapidly at high relative humidity within 14 days and then germinate normally. The inheritance of SHS was found to involve several genes. Soft seed was incompletely dominant to SHS. Narrow sense heritability ranged from 20 to 50% in populations studied. SHS was associated with excellent seed quality resulting in unusually vigorous seedlings.
John R. Stommel and Kathleen G. Haynes
Inheritance of resistance to tomato anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) S.J. Hughes was evaluated in parental, F1, F2, and backcross populations developed from crosses between adapted resistant (88B147) and susceptible (90L24) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) breeding lines. Resistance was evaluated via measurement of lesion diameters in fruit collected from field-grown plants and puncture inoculated in a shaded greenhouse. Backcross and F2 populations exhibited continuous distributions suggesting multigenic control of anthracnose resistance. Anthracnose resistance was partially dominant to susceptibility. Using generation means analysis, gene action in these populations was best explained by an additive-dominance model with additive × additive epistatic effects. A broad-sense heritability (H) of 0.42 and narrow-sense heritability (h2) of 0.004 was estimated for resistance to C. coccodes. One gene or linkage group was estimated to control segregation for anthracnose resistance in the cross of 90L24 × 88B147.
Carol A. Lemke and Martha A. Mutschler
The absence or presence of type IV trichomes seemed to be simply inherited in crosses of the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, and Lycopersicon pennellii Correll. F2 and BC1 data showed a good fit to a 15 : 1 and 3 : 1 ratio, respectively, suggesting that the presence of type IV trichomes is controlled by 2 unlinked genes. Broad sense heritability estimates of type IV trichome density were high. Generation means analysis of type IV trichome density indicated that genic interaction was important in the 3 crosses. All plants examined possessed type VI trichomes. Density of type VI trichomes seemed to be under large environmental influences. Broad sense heritability estimates for the density of type VI trichomes were low to moderate. Correlation coefficients comparing adaxial and abaxial trichome density measurements of both types of trichomes were significant for most of the populations studied. Correlation coefficients comparing type IV and type VI trichomes were not significant in most of the populations studied.
F. A. Bliss
The precision of a 9-plant hill-plot design in which plants were sown 15 cm apart in a 3 × 3 arrangement compared favorably to that of 3-m-row plots containing approximately 75 plants for the estimation of pod yield of snap beans Phaseolus vulgaris L. Quality traits and sieve size distribution based on pod diameter in both plot designs were similar. Using the square design, the entire 9-plant plot can be taken as the unit of selection, or single plant selection can be practiced when the test plant is grown in the center hill surrounded by 8 uniform guard plants. Single plant selection using this design has been used effectively to modify traits of beans having moderate to high heritability. Selection based on family means should be used for traits with low heritability. Efficiency of the hill-plot design is realized in terms of smaller plot size, fewer required seeds per plot and reduced harvest time.