Chlorophylls and xanthophylls were monitored in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plen.) florets stored in air, air + 10 ppm ethylene, or 10% CO2 + 1% O2 controlled atmosphere (CA) at 15 °C. Chlorophylls a and b, as measured with high-performance liquid chromatography, decreased in florets held in air. The decrease was accelerated by ethylene treatment and suppressed in CA. Chlorophyllide a and pheophorbide a were present in fresh broccoli florets, but the levels decreased significantly in all treatments during storage. The oxidized product of chlorophyll a, 132-hydroxychlorophyll a, did not accumulate. Xanthophylls decreased, but new pigments, suggested to be esterified xanthophylls, formed with yellowing in stored florets. The chlorophyll degradative pathway in broccoli florets was not altered by ethylene or CA and differed from that reported for parsley (Petroselium crisum Nym.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves.
Naoki Yamauchi and Alley E. Watada
J.M. Sarracino, R. Merrit, and C.K. Chin
Two foliage plant species, Leea coccinia L. and Leea rubra L., were evaluated for survival and for morphological and physiological changes in response to low light flux. Both species of Leea survived in light as low as that survived by Ficus benjamina L. Following 124 days under simulated interior lighting conditions of 5.7, 2.6, or 0.70 mol·m-2·day-1, L. coccinia, L. rubra, and F. benjamina plants grown in 92% shade had lower total fresh/dry weight, smaller leaf area, and thinner leaves than plants grown in full sun. After 124 days, plants of all three species in 92% shade were shorter, narrower, and had fewer growing points than plants in full sun. After 124 days, plants of L. coccinia grown in 92% shade contained more total chlorophyll, and more chlorophyll a and b, and they had a lower chlorophyll a: b ratio than plants from full sun. Anthocyanin content in L. rubra plants grown in 92% shade was lower than that of plants grown in full sun. Plants of F. benjamina grown in 92% shade contained more total chlorophyll and more chlorophyll a and b than plants grown in full sun.
M. Wilcox, C.A. Sanchez, and T.M. Blackmer
Several studies in the midwestem United States have shown that chlorophyll meter readings (Minolta SPAD 502) are useful in determining the N status of corn (Zea Mays L.), and show promise as a tool for the efficient N management of corn. Studies were conducted to evaluate the potential of the `chlorophyll meter for evaluating N deficiencies in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Data for chlorophyll meter readings, midrib nitrate-N, lettuce growth rate, and marketable lettuce yield were collected in five N fertility experiments in 1993 and 1994. Chlorophyll meter readings not only varied among lettuce types (butter, cos, leaf, crisphead), but also among cultivars of the crisphead type. Chlorophyll meter readings were generally poorly correlated to midrib nitrate-N levels and marketable lettuce yield. Lettuce leaves have more color variation than corn leaves, and perhaps this variation in relation to the small sensor size on the SPAD 502 confounded readings. The observation that subtle N deficiencies in lettuce are usually manifested in growth rate reduction rather than abrupt color changes may also limit the usefulness of the chlorophyll meter for lettuce.
Pinghai Ding*, Jessica M. Cortell, and Leslie H. Fuchigami
Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrition factors affecting grapevine growth performance and berry quality. Leaf pigments contents and leaf areas are the important indicators of grapevine nitrogen status and plant performance. In order to find a efficient way to nondestructively measure leaf nitrogen and pigments status, the SPAD meter, CCM-200 and CM-1000 chlorophyll meter in comparisons with FOSS NIR system were used in measuring leaf nitrogen, leaf chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids and anthocyanins in 7-year-old Pinot Noir grape with different rate of N treatments. The results indicate that the reading of all these meters have a good relationship with leaf N, leaf chlorophyll and leaf area. But the accuracy among these meters was different, in which the accuracy of FOSS NIR is better than that of the SPAD meter, CCM-200 and CM-1000. There is the good relationship between leaf nitrogen contents, leaf area, leaf chlorophyll and carotenoids contents. Flavonoids and anthocyanins have the inverse relationship with leaf N contents and leaf area. FOSS NIR system can be use for nondestructive assessing nitrogen, leaf chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids and anthocyanins whereas the other meters can only used for nondestructive assessing leaf nitrogen and leaf chlorophyll. These results indicate it is possible to use nondestructive spectral methods as the precision viticulture tools to manage vineyards nitrogen fertilization and grapevine performance.
Christian M. Baldwin, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, Hong Luo, Joe Toler, and Steven H. Long
#9840; Taylor), visual turfgrass quality (TQ), clipping yield, chlorophyll concentration, root total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC), soil bulk density, and water infiltration rates. Canopy and soil (7.6 cm depth) temperatures were recorded after each
Aims of this investigation were to determine whether chlorophyll fluorescence values obtained from excised leaves of woody perennials subjected to salinity stress under laboratory conditions provided a measurable indicator of whole plant salinity tolerance. Laboratory tests consisted of measurements of the ratio of variable to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) performed on excised leaves taken from thirty woody perennials following immersion in salt solutions ranging from concentrations of 2% to 7%. Based on reductions in Fv/Fm of excised leaves following salinity treatments plants were ranked in order of tolerance. Whole plants of six of the thirty species tested were then subjected to a foliar applied salt at a concentration of 7% and placed under glass for 14 weeks. Damage to, and recovery of whole plants from salt damage as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf necrosis and chlorophyll content mirrored tolerance ranking of excised leaves under laboratory conditions. In addition, based on reductions in plant growth at the cessation of the experiment, salt tolerance followed a similar order as that obtained from Fv/Fm values of excised leaves. Results indicate that testing of excised leaf material of woody perennials under laboratory conditions using chlorophyll fluorescence offers a potentially quick, reliable and inexpensive procedure that can provide a useful means of estimating whole plant salt tolerance.
E.H. Ervin and A.J. Koski
The effects of trinexapac-ethyl (TE) on the anatomical and biochemical composition of turfgrasses and their implications for its field use are poorly understood. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine if application of TE increased Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) leaf blade cell density, chlorophyll concentration, or structural carbohydrate content. Kentucky bluegrass (KB) sod was harvested from the field, established in greenhouse pots, and sprayed with 0.27 kg·ha-1 a.i. TE. Leaf blade samples were collected 4 weeks after treatment (WAT), fixed in glutaraldehyde, and embedded in Spurr resin. Photomicrographs of longitudinal leaf blade sections were used to determine cell density, cell length, and cell width. Chlorophyll and structural carbohydrate contents were determined at 2 and 4 WAT. Treatment with TE increased cell density and chlorophyll-b concentration, while reducing cell length, but structural carbohydrate content was unaffected. Chemical name used: 4-cyclopropyl-α-hydroxy-methylene-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester (trinexapac-ethyl).
Robert W. McMahon, Cecil R. Stewart, and Richard J. Gladon
Chlorophyll a and b contents were determined in developing tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Heinz 1350') at 5-day increments from 10 or 15 days past anthesis to fulIy ripe (55 to 60 days). When presented on a whole-fruit basis, chlorophyll a and b contents increased from 15 days past anthesis to 35 days and then decreased to zero at 55 days. Porphobilinogen (EC 188.8.131.52; PBG) deaminase activity was measured in extracts from the fruit, and changes in PBG deaminase activity correlated with changes in chlorophyll and protein contents with respect to fruit age. Partial characterization of tomato PBG deaminase enzyme showed similarities to PBG deaminase enzymes isolated from other sources.
Hong Wang and Robert C. Herner
A study of the ultrastructure of leaf tissues of Chinese mustard shows that there is a progressive degeneration of the membrane structure of the grana of the chloroplast accompanied with the appearance of globules of lipid material and loss of chlorophyll during leaf senescence. A controlled atmosphere of 5% CO2 plus 3% O2 maintained chloroplast grana membrane structure for up to 4 weeks storage at 10°C. Both 5% CO2 (in air) and 5% CO2 plus 3% O2 maintained the highest chlorophyll content compared to 3% O2 alone or in air (control).
Vincent M. Russo and P. Perkins-Veazie
(PO 4 ), and sulfate (SO 4 ) were determined following methods provided by the manufacturer (anions: QuikChem method 10-510-00-1-A; cations: QuikChem method 10-520-00-1-B). Levels of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and vitamin C in pods were determined