The effects of different pollen sources on fruit and seed characteristics of Paeonia ostii ‘Feng Dan’ were investigated using analysis of three different pollination treatments and pollen sources from fifteen cultivars in two successive years. The results showed that self-pollination decreased fruit setting, the number of seeds per fruit, seed volume, seed and kernel weights, and the linoleic acid (LA) concentration in the seed oil, but increased the concentration of oleic acid (OA) compared with cross-pollination. Among those pollen donors, P. suffruticosa ‘Yinhong Qiaodui’ produced the highest fruit set (87.5%); the lowest fruit set was obtained with P. suffruticosa ‘Mo Run Jue Lun’ (44.33%). The most seeds per fruit were achieved by P. suffruticosa ‘Mochi Jin Hui’. P. suffruticosa ‘Dahong Baozhu’ produced the largest fruit, which contained larger and heaviest seeds. The oil extraction ratio (26% to 31.6%) and the concentration of three major unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) in seed oil also significantly differed among pollen sources. The content of OA, LA, and α-linolenic acid (ALA) ranged from 13.82 to 24.79, 12.09 to 21.84, and 23.50 to 38.64 g/100 g crude oil, respectively. Overall, pollen source has clear effects on seed yield and even on fatty acid (FA) composition of seed oil in tree peony.
Lihang Xie, Lixin Niu, Yanlong Zhang, Min Jin, Duo Ji, and Xiaoxiao Zhang
Ki-Ho Son, Jin-Hui Lee, Youngjae Oh, Daeil Kim, Myung-Min Oh, and Byung-Chun In
This study aimed to determine the effect of changes in light quality on the improvement of growth and bioactive compound synthesis in red-leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. ‘Sunmang’) grown in a plant factory with electrical lighting. Lettuce seedlings were subjected to 12 light treatments combining five lighting sources: red (R; 655 nm), blue (B; 456 nm), and different ratios of red and blue light combined with three light-emitting diodes [LEDs (R9B1, R8B2, and R6B4)]. Treatments were divided into control (continuous irradiation of each light source for 4 weeks), monochromatic (changing from R to B at 1, 2, or 3 weeks after the onset of the experiments), and combined (changing from R9B1 to R8B2 or R6B4 at 2 or 3 weeks after the onset of the experiments). Growth and photosynthetic rates of lettuce increased with increasing ratios of red light, whereas chlorophyll and antioxidant phenolic content decreased with increasing ratios of red light. Individual phenolic compounds, including chlorogenic, caffeic, chicoric, and ferulic acids, and kaempferol, showed a similar trend to that of total phenolics. Moreover, transcript levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes were rapidly upregulated by changing light quality from red to blue. Although the concentration of bioactive compounds in lettuce leaves enhanced with blue light, their contents per lettuce plant were more directly affected by red light, suggesting that biomass as well as bioactive compounds’ accumulation should be considered to enhance phytochemical production. In addition, results suggested that growth and antioxidant phenolic compound synthesis were more sensitive to monochromatic light than to combined light variations. In conclusion, the adjustment of light quality at a specific growth stage should be considered as a strategic tool for improving crop yield, nutritional quality, or both in a plant factory with electrical lighting.
Jin Cui, Juanxu Liu, Min Deng, Jianjun Chen, and Richard J. Henny
Syngonium podophyllum ‘White Butterfly’, one of the most popular ornamental foliage plants, is propagated almost exclusively through in vitro shoot culture. Ex vitro rooting, however, has been associated with severe Myrothecium leaf spot (Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr.). The objective of this study was to establish a method for regenerating well-rooted plantlets before ex vitro transplanting. Leaf and petiole explants were cultured on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N′-phenylurea (CPPU), N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea (TDZ), 6-benzyladenine (BA), or N-isopentenylaminopurine (2iP) with α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), respectively. Calli formed from leaf explants cultured on the basal medium supplemented with CPPU or TDZ with 2,4-D or with NAA as well as from petiole explants cultured on the medium supplemented with BA, CPPU, or TDZ with 2,4-D or NAA. The calli, however, failed to differentiate, and shoot organogenesis did not occur. Culture of nodal explants on the MS basal medium supplemented with 9.84 μm 2iP, 8.88 μm BA, 8.07 μm CPPU, or 9.08 μm TDZ with 2.26 μm 2,4-D resulted in the formation of protocorm-like bodies, adventitious shoots, and subsequently well-rooted plantlets. MS basal medium supplemented with 19.68 μm 2iP and 1.07 μm NAA resulted in the highest percentage (92.9%) of nodal explants producing protocorm-like bodies and an average of 16.9 well-rooted plantlets per nodal explant. Adventitious shoots were able to root in the initial induction medium, but better root development occurred after shoots with protocorm-like bodies were transferred onto MS basal medium supplemented with 9.84 μm 2iP and 2.69 μm NAA. Regenerated plantlets were stable and grew vigorously with 100% survival rates after ex vitro transplanting to a container substrate in a shaded greenhouse.
Ke-peng Che, Chun-yang Liang, Yue-guang Wang, De-min Jin, Bin Wang, Yong Xu, Guo-bing Kang, and Hai-ying Zhang
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses were used to assess genetic diversity among 30 genotypes of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.] representing a broad genetic base, including breeding lines and commercial germplasm. Eight AFLP primer combinations selected from 64 primer combinations were polymophic. The polymorphism was 13.0% to 31.9% within the 28 cultivars examined, and 45.3% to 64.2% among all the genotypes. Each genotype could be successfully distinguished based on AFLP scoring. Cluster grouping of accessions based on the AFLP analysis was consistent with that from classification by pedigrees and ecotypes.
Yu-Xiong Zhong, Jian-Ye Chen, Hai-Ling Feng, Jian-Fei Kuang, Ruo Xiao, Min Ou, Hui Xie, Wang-Jin Lu, Yue-Ming Jiang, and He-Tong Lin
Fresh fruit of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) are susceptible to pericarp browning and aril breakdown. Aril breakdown in longan fruit is regarded as one of the most important factors reducing quality and shortening storage life of the fruit. To better understand the molecular mechanism of aril breakdown, the expression patterns of three expansin (EXP) and three xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) genes in relation to the aril breakdown of longan fruit stored at room temperature (25 °C) or low temperature (4 °C) were investigated. The results showed that aril breakdown index increased progressively during storage at 25 and at 4 °C. Northern blotting analysis revealed that the accumulations of three EXP and three XET genes exhibited differential characteristics with the occurrence of aril breakdown. During storage at 25 °C, the accumulations of Dl-XET3 increased after 1 day, suggesting that Dl-XET3 correlated well with the early aril breakdown, while Dl-EXP3 together with Dl-XET1 and Dl-XET2 was involved in later aril breakdown. However, expression of Dl-XET1 and Dl-XET2 could be mainly involved in aril breakdown of longan fruit stored at 4 °C. In addition, Dl-EXP2, whose accumulation increased sharply when longan fruit were transferred from low temperature to room temperature within 12 hours, was related to the aril breakdown in this storage period. These data indicated that Dl-EXPs and Dl-XETs were closely related to aril breakdown in longan fruit.