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Jeffrey W. Burcaw, Bruce W. Wood, and Michael W. Pool

The authors have developed a mathematical model designed for shade-intolerant tree crops which describes the amount of intertree shading in an orchard. These data are used to formulate an optimal orchard design based on shading reduction in orchards for any tree crop during any developmental window at any global location for either continuous canopy hedgerows or non-intersecting canopies for several different orchard geometries. Variables include tree shape, orchard geometry intertree spacing, row orientation, time and day of year, and geographical coordinates. Optimal orchard designs are based upon the total amount of unshaded canopy surface per unit area which each orchard configuration confers. Results indicate extensive variability of intertree shading between hedgerow and non-intersecting canopies to be largely a function of latitude, regardless of other variables.