Ebenus cretica, Leguminosae, is a characteristic endemic plant of the Mediterranean island of Crete. It is a perennial bush up to 1 m tall with composite pubescent leaves and pinky red or purple flowers on 5- to 20-cm-long racemes. The fruit is surrounded by the calyx and contains one seed. The plants grow on rocky hillsides in alkaline soils at an altitude of up to 600 m and flower from April to June. Ebenus has the potential for use as a container or landscape flowering plant, and this study was aimed at finding methods to propagate it either by seed or by shoot cuttings. Seed collected from native plants in late July/Aug. 1992 germinated well (70% to 90%) without scarification in a commercial potting mix. Fifty percent of the seed germinated in vitro between 13 and 25 days, depending on temperature and substrate used. Temperatures of 25 or 30C in light at a pH ≈6.0 favored germination. Removal of the dry calyx coating the seed enhanced germination and emergence. For rooting Ebenus cuttings, several concentrations of IAA, IBA, and NAA were used in combination with different types of cuttings (soft or hardwood, tip or basal, cultivated or wild). Best results were obtained by wounding the base and dipping shoot-tip cuttings (12 cm long) in 600 mg IBA/liter for 16 hours. Significant differences, however, were observed among germination and rooting percentages when seeds or cuttings were taken from different plants due to genetic diversity. Therefore, selection is required for optimal results.
J.C. Vlahos and M. Dragassaki
J.C. Vlahos, M. Dragassaki, and I. Assargiotaki
Achimenes is a summer-flowering pot plant commonly propagated by shoot tip cuttings taken from rhizomes released from dormancy. Micropropagation was used in this study in order to establish a protocol for producing plants in winter when Achimenes are not usually available. Leaf segments, taken in August 1993, from hybrids `Flamenco', `Rosenelfe', `Bella', and `Sandra' grown in a greenhouse, were cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.1 mg·liter–1 BA and 0.5 mg·liter–1; shoots proliferated without callus formation. Leaf explants taken from the proliferated shoots were placed on MS medium with 0.5 mg·liter–1 BA and 0.1 mg·liter–1 NAA for 8 weeks for further shoots proliferation. `Bella' showed vigorous growth and produced the most shoots (82) with no rhizomes, whereas `Flamenco' had the least shoots (28) along with rhizomes. Shoot tips were then transferred on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg·liter–1 NAA for 6 weeks where more vigorous shoots developed along with roots. Microcuttings were directly stuck ex vitro under moisture and rooted well in 4 weeks before planting in individual culture and flowered normally. These results provide the basis for a successful production of Achimenes hybrids for growth and flowering in winter months provided optimal temperature and irradiance levels are given.
J.C. Vlahos, M. Dragassaki, A. Vasilaki, I. Assargiotaki, and A.M. Tsatsakis
Polymeric formulations of plant growth regulators (PGR) are high-molecular weight systems in which the PGR unit can be slowly released providing prolonged action and effectiveness in a wide range of concentrations. In this study, Achimene explants were used for testing the biological activity of polymeric derivatives of NAA and 2,4-D. Shoots of Achimenes `Bella', obtained from leaf segments cultured in vitro, were transferred for 8 weeks on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different levels of conventional or polymeric NAA (0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mg·liter–1) and 2.4-D (0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mg·liter–1), each combined with three levels of BAP (0, 0.1, 0.5 mg·liter–1). Compared to conventional NAA, twice as many shoots proliferated with higher dry weight, at 0.5 0.1, 1.0, or 1.5 mg·liter–1 polymeric NAA with 0.5 mg·liter–1 BAP. In another trial, the combination of 0.05 or 0.1 mg·liter–1 polymeric 2,4-D with 0.1 BAP gave more shoot and vigorous growth without callus formation, compared to conventional 2.4-D These results suggest that the polymeric derivatives of auxins used in this study enhance regeneration and growth of Achimenes in vitro more effectively than conventional formulations, at greater concentrations, without causing toxic or inhibitory effects.