Jeffrey K. Brecht
Pavlos Tsouvaltzis, Angelos Deltsidis and Jeffrey K. Brecht
Enzymatic browning is a serious quality limitation for fresh-cut potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that has been successfully controlled by heat treatment in other commodities. The use of brief heat treatments with 55 °C water (HW) applied to ‘Russet Burbank’ tubers for 10, 20, 30, or 40 min before cutting was evaluated for potential implementation to control tissue browning. After heat treatment, tubers were held at 20 °C for 0 or 1 day before peeling and slicing. Control tubers were not previously immersed in hot water. All slices were placed in perforated plastic bags and stored at 5 °C for 6 days. Exposure to HW for 30 or 40 min caused severe heat injury. Browning developed in all treatments as indicated by color measurements and discoloration scores (index of extent of discolored area on the slice surface) during storage. Hot water treatment for 10 min best reduced browning, but only when treated tubers were stored intact for 1 day at 20 °C before cutting, as indicated by discoloration scores and changes in L*, a*, and Ho values, which were significantly different from either the control or the other HW treatments. Generally, the severe browning that developed in control slices during storage was associated with significant increases of 25% and 71% in phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, respectively. On the other hand, phenolic synthesis increased by only 6.25% to 13.2% in HW-treated slices during storage and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity was 24% to 31% lower compared with the activity before storage. Immersing potato tubers in 55 °C water for 10 to 20 min followed by storage at 20 °C for 1 day before processing reduced but did not prevent browning of peeled slices in terms of color changes and discoloration score. There was no significant correlation between browning and phenolic content or PPO activity.
Steven A. Sargent and Jeffrey K. Brecht
Carambolas (Averrhoa carambola L., cv. Arkin) ware harvested at colorbreak (CB) and light green (LG) ripeness stages, commercially packed and cooled. The next day the fruit were treated as: Control (ungassed): CB, LG; Ethylene pretreatment (ETH) @100ppm: LC for 1, 2 or 3 days at 20°C or 25°. After pretreatment the fruit were stored at 5°. After 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks, 10 fruit from each treatment ware removed from storage and placed at 20°. Fruit color and decay were rated daily until 80% of the fruit in each treatment reached the yellow ripeness stage, at which time external color, total soluble solids (TSS), pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) were determined. Carambolas harvested at the LG stage can be ripened to good quality with ETH pretreatment. For two weeks storage at 5°, 2 days ETH are necessary at 20° or 25° to initiate ripening. For three weeks storage, 3 days ETH are required at 20°, and 2 or 3 days ETH are required at 25°. Fruit stored four weeks were of fair quality. LG with slower ripening initiation developed chilling injury during storage; the fastest initiation had the best color but the shortest marketing life. Fruit harvested CB had slightly higher TSS than ETH-treated LG but pH and TTA were similar.
Jeffrey K. Brecht and Kimberly M. Cordasco
Abscission of cluster tomatoes commonly limits product marketability in the retail environment. Ripening and exogenous ethylene exposure are assumed to play important roles in cluster tomato fruit abscission. `Clarance' and `DRW7229' fruit harvested at either mature green or partially ripened stages did not abscise during storage for 2 weeks at 20 °C and 95% to 100% relative humidity (RH), although respiration and ethylene production indicated that all fruit reached the postclimacteric stage. Exogenous ethylene (1 or 10 ppm) exposure for 8 days at 20 °C and 95% to 100% RH also did not induce fruit abscission for either cultivar, although pedicel and sepal yellowing were observed. Fruit from clusters stored at 20 °C and 20% or 50% RH abscised if sepal shrivel became noticeable before the fruit reached the full red ripeness stage, while no abscission occurred in fruit that reached the full red stage prior to the appearance of sepal shrivel; no fruit stored in 95% to 100% RH abscised. Fruit that ripened prior to the appearance of sepal shrivel were “plugged” (i.e., tissue underlying the stem scar was pulled out) if manual fruit detachment from the pedicel was attempted. These results indicate that there is an interaction of water loss and fruit ripening in promoting abscission zone development in cluster tomatoes.
Angelos I. Deltsidis, Charles A. Sims and Jeffrey K. Brecht
Harvesting before ripening initiation (i.e., mature green) may negatively affect the flavor of fresh tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) even though the ripening process off the vine is physiologically the same as that on the plant. Low temperature storage at or below the putative chilling injury (CI) threshold can also have detrimental effects on fresh tomato flavor regardless of the developmental stage of the fruit at harvest, but sensitivity to CI declines with ripening. Controlled atmospheres (CA) using reduced oxygen and elevated carbon dioxide partial pressures can extend the shelf life (SL) of tomatoes while possibly minimizing the negative effects of low temperatures. In this study, we explored the possibility that a combination of temperature and CA could be used to achieve similar SL for pink-harvested tomatoes as has been found in other studies with green-harvested fruit while avoiding the negative effects of CI on sensory quality. Consumer panels were given samples of pink-harvested tomatoes after they had reached the red ripeness stage in terms of surface hue following storage for 7 days in air or CA at 7.5, 15, or 20 °C followed by 2–7 days ripening in air at 20 °C. Exposing pink tomatoes to 7.5 °C before ripening to the full-red stage at 20 °C negatively affected fruit sensory quality, holding fruit constantly at 20 °C until they reached the full-red stage resulted in better quality for one taste panel, whereas there was no difference in another taste panel. The time to reach the full-red stage was extended by CA. Sensory quality of air- and CA-stored fruit was similar at the nonchilling temperatures of 15 and 20 °C. Pink stage tomato fruit stored in CA at 7.5 °C for 7 days did not attain full red color within the subsequent 7 days in air at 20 °C.
Desire Djidonou, Xin Zhao, Jeffrey K. Brecht and Kim M. Cordasco
Grafting is considered to be a unique component in sustainable vegetable production. In addition to its usefulness for managing soil-borne diseases, it has been suggested that grafting with vigorous rootstocks can improve crop growth and yield. The objective of this greenhouse study was to assess the effects of different interspecific hybrid tomato rootstocks (Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum habrochaites) on yield, growth, nutrient accumulation, and fruit composition of tomato (S. lycopersicum). Using the determinate tomato cultivar Florida 47 as the scion, plants were grafted onto four interspecific rootstock cultivars including Beaufort, Maxifort, Multifort, and RST-04-105. Overall, the use of rootstocks resulted in total and marketable fruit increase 53% and 66% higher than non-grafted and self-grafted scion plants, respectively. The increase in marketable yield by ‘Beaufort’, ‘Maxifort’, and ‘Multifort’ was largely attributed to an increased number of fruit per plant, whereas higher average fruit weight contributed to the yield increase in plants grafted onto ‘RST-04-105’. Self-grafting of ‘Florida 47’ resulted in similar yield as the non-grafted scion control. Analyses of plant growth parameters demonstrated significant enhancement of total leaf area at first fruit harvest in plants grafted onto interspecific rootstocks as compared with the non-grafted and self-grafted scion controls. In addition to plant growth and yield improvement, enhanced accumulation of nitrogen, potassium, and calcium was also observed in grafted plants. The enhancement in mineral nutrient accumulation was largely related to increased biomass accumulation rather than higher nutrient concentration (on a dry weight basis). The overall accumulation of phosphorus was not influenced markedly by the rootstocks used. In general, grafting with the interspecific rootstocks maintained fruit soluble solids content (SSC) and total titratable acidity (TTA), concentrations of vitamin C, carotenoids, and total phenolics at levels comparable with non-grafted plants, whereas harvest date showed a more pronounced effect on fruit composition.
Michael T. Masarirambi, Jeffrey K. Brecht and Steven A. Sargent
Mature green fruit of `Agriset 761', `Colonial', `Sunny' and `Sunbeam' tomatoes were exposed to 100 ppm ethylene at 20, 25, 30, 35, or 40°C around 95% relative humidity (RH) for 24, 48, or 72 hours, then transferred to air at 20°C and 95% RH for ripening. There were few differences in ripening behavior in tomatoes exposed to ethylene at high temperatures (>30°C) for 24 hours compared to those treated at lower temperatures. However, increasing the duration of ethylene treatment at 35 or 40°C to 48 or 72 hours inhibited subsequent red color development, but prior exposure to ethylene at 30°C stimulated red color development. Ethylene production was inhibited after 48 or 72 hours at 40°C, but was stimulated by exposure to lower temperatures in the order shown: 35 > 30 > 25. During ripening, conversion of ACC to ethylene increased in fruit exposed to ethylene at 20 or 25°C but did not change in fruit from 30 or 35°C. ACC oxidase activity was lowest after exposure to 40°C. Untreated fruit ripened slowly and nonuniformly compared to those previously treated with 100 ppm ethylene. Increasing the ethylene treatment concentration to 1000 ppm did not alter the responses to high temperatures described above.
Thanaa M. Ezz, Mark A. Ritenour and Jeffrey K. Brecht
Heat treatments and exposure to elevated CO2 are known to reduce the incidence of chilling injury on grapefruit. In the current study, `Marsh' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) were harvested on 17 Jan. or 22 Mar. 1996 and exposed to hot water (HW) dips (48 °C for 120 minutes) or exposed to controlled atmosphere (CA) of 10% or 16% CO2 during the first 3 weeks of an 8-week cold storage period (4.5 °C) to test their effects on the development of peel pitting (i.e., chilling injury) and proline and other compositional changes of the peel and juice. All HW and CA treatments from both harvests greatly reduced the development of peel pitting compared to the control. These treatments were also associated with lower average proline levels in the flavedo during storage. This suggests that HW and elevated CO2 may reduce chilling-induced peel pitting by facilitating proline metabolism in grapefruit flavedo tissue. HW and CA treatments resulted in higher peel total soluble and nonreducing sugar levels, but effects on peel reducing sugar and free amino acid concentrations were not consistent. In the juice, HW reduced titratable acidity (TA) concentrations while CA tended to increase both TA and ascorbic acid concentrations. Compared to the control, CA resulted in a slight decrease in total soluble solids during storage, while the effect of HW was inconsistent.
Steven A. Sargent, Jeffrey K. Brecht and Judith J. Zoellner
Internal bruising (IB) caused by handling impacts results in disruption of normal ripening in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) locular gel. It was selected as an injury indicator to investigate the effect of drop height (O, 10, 20, 30 cm) onto an unpadded surface and number of impacts (one or two) for three tomato cultivars. For mature-green (MG) tomatoes, significant incidence of IB (5% to 45%) was found in all cultivars for single drops on opposite sides of fruits from 20 cm; two drops on the same location from 20 cm caused 20% to 30% IB. Breaker-stage (BR) tomatoes were more sensitive to impacts than MG. Single drops from 10 cm on opposite sides of BR fruits caused 15% to 73% IB, depending on cultivar. Two drops on a single location from 10 cm caused 50% to 68% IB. `Sunny' was less susceptible to IB than `Solar Set' or `Cobia' (formerly NVH-4459).
Abd-Shukor A. Rahman, Donald J. Huber and Jeffrey K. Brecht
Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L., var. `Jupiter') fruit stored in 1.5%, 5%, or 10% O2, or in air at 20C for24 hours were compared to determine the residual effect of low-O, storage on respiration after transfer to air. The lowest O2 concentration (1.5%) exerted the greatest residual effect on bell pepper fruit CO2 production and O2, uptake. No ethanol was detected in the headspace gas of fruit stored in 1.5% O2. Carbon dioxide production continued to be suppressed for ≈ 24 hours after transfer from 1.5% O2 to air. Exposure to 5% O2, for 24 hours resulted in less suppression of CO, production and O2 uptake upon transfer to air, while 10% O2 exerted no residual effect. Extending the storage period in 1.5% O2 to 72 hours extended the residual effect from 24 to 48 hours. Ethylene production was not affected by storage in 1.5% or 4% O2 for 24 or 72 hours. The residual effect exhibited in whole fruit was not apparent in mitochondria isolated from bell pepper stored in 1.5% or 4% O2.