Use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (MA) on horticultural plant production has great potential as a biotechnological alternative; however, information on its effects on the early growth phase of honeydew melon is lacking. Nevertheless, it would seem that inoculation at the time of sowing would decrease the stress of transplant, improve root vigor, make plants grow faster, improve drought resistance, and lessen the effect of roots diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of inoculating honeydew melon seedlings with two commercial formulations of MA fungi at different study times in an effort to select for higher resistance and infective capacity. `Moonshine' hybrid melon seeds were sown in trials with 200 cavities containing specific doses of inoculate: 0, 100, 200, 250, 500, and 1000 cc/trial of BuRIZE, Mycorrhiza NES. A factorial design was used (formulations and study times) with a randomized distribution and four replications. Four destructive samples were taken at 10, 15, 20, and 25 days after inoculations. Number of leaves, shoot fresh weight, dry weight, root fresh weight, foliar area, and mycorrhizal colonization were recorded. Results obtained showed a highly significant effect between commercial formulations and study times and an interaction of both factors to studied variables. Mycorrhizal colonization percentages were too low (0.3% to 1.7%). At 20 days after inoculations, it was possible to see all the components of functional arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on melon plants roots. Using commercial formulations of mycorrhizal fungi decreased applications of fertilizers in melon plants.
César Guzmán-Loza, J. Farías-Larios, and J.G. López-Aguirre
J. Farías-Larios, J.G. López-Aguirre, J.L. Miranda, and L.A. Bayardo-Vizcaino
Acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) is a small, red fruit that is native to the West Indies, but is also grown in South and Central America. In western Mexico, this crop is very important because acerola is the richest known natural source of vitamin C, with a content of 1000 to 4500 mg/100 g of fruit. In nursery and field conditions, acerola growth is severely affected by root-knot nematode. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of commercial formulations of Bacillus spp. on root-knot nematode management. This study was carried out in the Farm Santa Clara Maria in Colima State. Acerola plants, 60 days old were used. They were grown in 3-L pots with soil, compost, and pumice stone mixture as substrate. Treatments evaluated were: 5, 10, 15 and 30 mL/pot of Activate 2001, Tri-Mat (5 mL/pot) and control, without application. Activate 2001® is a concentrated liquid in water suspension of Bacillus chitinosporus, B. laterosporus, and B. licheniformis. Initial nematode population was of 3,305 in 50 g of roots. Acerola plants were harvested at 30, 60, and 90 days after application. Results show that Activate 2001 at 10 and 30 mL rates reduce significantly root-knot populations in acerola plants 60 days after application with 135 and 178 nematodes/50 g of roots, respectively. Diameter stem, shoot fresh and dry weight and root production were also increased by rhizobacteria application. These results are promising and confirmed the potential of Bacillus as a biological agent for nematode management.
J.G. Lopez-Aguirre, J. Molina-Ochoa, J. Farias-Larios, S. Guzman-Gonzalez, and A. Michel-Rosales
Amelioration and/or reclamation of saline and non-saline soils is based on the application of high quantities of agrochemical products or high volumes of water, which causes an injury in soil or downward displacement of nutrients to the lower layers in soils. Research was conducted to evaluate the effect of application of citric industry waste on saline and non-saline soil. The waste has an electrical conductivity (EC) of 2.7 dS/m and pH of 3–4.2, 35% is organic material that is readily decomposed. This experiment was carried out on field conditions using applications of three different volumes, T1 = 3200, T2 = 6400, and T3 = 9600 m3·ha–1·m–1 and a control, no-waste, (T0), using just irrigation water (EC = 2.5 dS·m–1). The same treatments were added to non-saline soil. Effect of citric industry waste application in both saline and non-saline soils was similar. In all the treatments, EC was decreased with respect to T0 and soil before application (BA), the largest decrease was found in T3. pH decreased in the top soil layer much more than in the bottom layers. Ions were decreased in all soil profile. Organic matter (OM) was increased in the profile in treatment T1 with respect to treatment T0, as well as in the top soil layers in T2 and T3, but no changes were detected in the remainder of the layers in treatments T2 and T3. We can suggest that the waste studied can be used in the amelioration of saline and non-saline soils.
J. Farias Larios, J. G. López Aguirre, E. Rincón Cruz, and F. Radillo Juarez
Since 1980, farmers from western Mexico have cultivated melon cantaloupe; however, during the past few years, they have seen the better advantages of honeydew melon. Some of them represent a good alternative to farmers because chemical products and labor costs are reduced, and because they are tolerant to several diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate 15 new hybrids of honeydew melon in western Mexico. The hybrids evaluated were: Dey Break, Hmx 4596, Hmx 4595, Hmx 4607, Sunex 7051, Rocio, creme de menthe, Silver world, Emerald sweet, Sme 5303, Sme 5302, Santa Fé, PSR 10994, and PSR 8994, Honey Brew was test. Fifteen -day-old plants were transplanted by hand. Treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete-block design. Beds 1.2 m wide and 7.0 m long were prepared, 1.5 m between beds, distance plant-plant 0.5 m (plant density ≈13,332 plant/ha). Results show that yield of SME 5302, SME 5303, HMX 4596, Rocío, Dey Break, PSR 8994, Sunex 7051, and HMX 4607 had a yield higher of 50 t/ha, Emerad sweet had more number fruit (59 per 10 plants), whereas SME 5303, SME 5302 and Silver world had higher fruit weight (>1.719 gr). We suggest the evaluation of these hybrids in other regions to know the adaptation to different conditions and to select the best in commercial quality and production.