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Open access

Lisa W. Alexander, Anthony L. Witcher and Fulya Baysal-Gurel

Witchhazel (Hamamelis sp.) cultivars are now available in an array of forms and flower colors, including several native, pollinator-friendly cultivars. However, little is known about response of witchhazel cultivars to powdery mildew (Podosphaera biuncinata) or the growth and flowering characteristics of witchhazel cultivars in a nursery field production setting. To provide growth, flowering, and disease incidence data to nursery growers, a cultivar trial including 23 cultivars of witchhazel representing five species was planted Apr. 2016 in McMinnville, TN. Plant growth, flowering density, length of bloom, and foliar disease incidence were evaluated over three growing seasons between May 2016 and Oct. 2018. ‘Zuccariniana’ japanese witchhazel (H. japonica) and ‘Sunglow’ common witchhazel (H. virginiana) showed the greatest height increase during the trial, and ‘Sunglow’ also added the most width during the trial. Cultivars with negative height or width growth included Sweet Sunshine chinese witchhazel (H. mollis) and hybrid witchhazels (H. ×intermedia) Aphrodite, Twilight, and Barmstedt Gold. Ten of the 23 cultivars experienced winter injury in the form of stem necrosis. Root crown sprouts were observed for all cultivars at least once during the trial. ‘Wisely Supreme’ chinese witchhazel had the longest bloom period, followed by ‘Westerstede’ and ‘Twilight’ hybrid witchhazels, whereas ‘Quasimodo’ vernal witchhazel (H. vernalis) had the greatest density of flowers. The hybrid witchhazel cultivars Aphrodite, Nina, and Arnold Promise and the common witchhazel cultivars Green Thumb and Sunglow were resistant to powdery mildew under trial conditions in all 3 years. ‘Twilight’ and ‘Barmstedt Gold’ hybrid witchhazel, ‘Little Suzie’ common witchhazel, ‘Wisley Supreme’ chinese witchhazel, and ‘Shibamichi Red’ japanese witchhazel were moderately resistant to powdery mildew.

Open access

Anthony L. Witcher, Fulya Baysal-Gurel, Eugene K. Blythe and Donna C. Fare

Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) is a valuable nursery product typically produced as a field-grown crop. Container-grown flowering dogwood can grow much faster than field-grown plants, thus shortening the production cycle, yet unacceptable crop loss and reduced quality continue to be major issues with container-grown plants. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of container size and shade duration on growth of flowering dogwood cultivars Cherokee Brave™ and Cherokee Princess from bare-root liners. In 2015, bare-root liners were transplanted to 23-L (no. 7) containers and placed under shade for 0 months (full sun), 2 months (sun4/shade2), 4 months (sun2/shade4), or 6 months (full shade) during the growing season. In 2016, one-half of the plants remained in no. 7 containers and the other half were transplanted to 50-L (no. 15) containers and assigned to the same four shade treatments. In 2015, plant height was greatest with full shade for both cultivars, whereas stem diameter and shoot dry weight (SDW) were greatest in full shade for Cherokee Brave™. In 2016, both cultivars in no. 15 containers had greater plant height, stem diameter, root dry weight (RDW), and SDW. Full shade resulted in the greatest height, stem diameter, RDW, and SDW for Cherokee Brave™, and improved overall growth for ‘Cherokee Princess’. However, vigorous growth due to container size and shade exposure increased the severity of powdery mildew (Erysiphe pulchra) in both years. Substrate leachate nutrient concentration (nitrate nitrogen and phosphate) was greater in no. 15 containers but shade duration had no effect.